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Cuba, Iran, Russia, etc. are removed from Coinbase's country list when trying to donate BTC to Wikipedia. Wtf Coinbase? Bitcoin is global. I live in one of those countries.

I was about to give money to Wikipedia but they won't even give me the option to input where I'm donating from because Coinbase's checkout system where you write your name/address doesn't include at least Cuba, Iran, North Korea, and Russia (didn't check for others) in their list of countries that they allow you to select from. Are they not allowed to take donations from such countries? Bitcoin is global and so is the information found on Wikipedia. I wouldn't know a lot if it wasn't for Wikipedia and am grateful for it, but if they and Coinbase don't recognize all countries then shame on them. I live in one of these places and I hope to see this fixed. It puts people like me who want to donate off. Picture
submitted by akkounting1 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Pinging Wikipedia, Coinbase, Mycelium: sending bitcoin don't work for some reason at the moment

Don't know who's to blame / where's the problem.
Tried yesterday and today. Scanned the QR Code with Mycelium, got all the payment details with no problem, choosed the fee, confirmed, and got this error:
http://i.imgur.com/bESX7Vi.png
submitted by Mark0Sky to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Wikipedia donation links through coinbase not working /r/Bitcoin

Wikipedia donation links through coinbase not working /Bitcoin submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

01-01 07:32 - 'Wikipedia donation links through coinbase not working' (self.Bitcoin) by /u/solusolu removed from /r/Bitcoin within 645-650min

'''
I was a little late on the fund drive and tried to donate with bitcoins. They're using Coinbase, I've got mycelium wallet. I'm getting an pretty nondescript error: "unable to send payment to merchant server. could not send payment to [link]1 (HTTP400) The payment will not be broadcast." I tried on a couple different networks (home, wireless) but no luck.
Anyone got any insight on this? Could it be on their end? I remember last year they had issues but I thought it was with bitpay.
'''
Wikipedia donation links through coinbase not working
Go1dfish undelete link
unreddit undelete link
Author: solusolu
1: ww*.*oin*__
Unknown links are censored to prevent spreading illicit content.
submitted by removalbot to removalbot [link] [comments]

Pinging Wikipedia, Coinbase, Mycelium: sending bitcoin don't work for some reason at the moment

Pinging Wikipedia, Coinbase, Mycelium: sending bitcoin don't work for some reason at the moment submitted by coincrazyy to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

Wikipedia Now Accepts Bitcoin Donations With Coinbase

Wikipedia Now Accepts Bitcoin Donations With Coinbase submitted by 0xFR to Aggregat0r [link] [comments]

The Unofficial Cardano FAQ - V3

(if you would like to add information or see mistakes, just comment below and I will credit you)
What is Cardano? Cardano is an open source and permissionless "Third Generation" blockchain project being developed by IOHK. Development and research started in 2015, with the 1.0 mainnet launching in 2017. Cardano blockchain is currently being developed into two layers. The first one is the ledger of account values, and the second one is the reason why values are transferred from one account to the other.
  1. Cardano Settlement Layer (CSL) - The CSL acts as the ledger of account or balance ledger. This is an idea created as an improvement of bitcoin blockchain. It uses a proof-of-stake consensus algorithm known as Ouroboros to generate new blocks and confirm transactions.
  2. Cardano Computation Layer (CCL) - The CCL contains the data how values are transferred. Since the computation layer is not connected to balance ledger, users of the CCL can create customized rules (smart contracts) when evaluating transactions. (https://support.bitkub.com/hc/en-us/articles/360006678892-What-are-the-two-layers-of-Cardano-)
IOHK has the contract with an undisclosed party to develop the project until the end of 2020, at which point the community may elect another development team - on the assumption that the voting infrastructure has been completed. However CEO Charles Hoskinson has stated that they will develop the project until it is completed, and they are simply financed until the end of 2020.
Cardano was the first project built on a peer-reviewed scientific development method, resulting in dozens of research papers produced by IOHK. Among these papers is Ouroboros Genesis, proving that a Proof of Stake protocol can be just as secure as Proof of Work - which was originally developed for Bitcoin, and refined for Ethereum. This PoS protocol considerably lowers the resources cost to maintain network while still maintaining security and network speed.
Cardano as a financial infrastructure is not yet completed, With significant development to be rolled out.
What were the other two generations of blockchain? Gen 1 was Bitcoin. It exists by itself and talks to nobody but Bitcoin. It is capable of peer to peer transactions without a third party in such a way that you cannot cheat the system. This was a major step forward for the E-cash concept that people have been working on for the 20 years prior.
Gen 2 was Ethereum and other smart-contract platforms that allow other coins and platforms to be built on top of their infrastructure. These coins can interact with others on the platform, but cannot interact with other platforms. Meaning it is still not truly interoperable. Most Gen 2 blockchains are also using Proof of Work likes Bitcoin, which effects scaling. Also missing is a built-in method to pay for upgrades and voting mechanics for decision making.
Gen 3 blockchains are a complete package designed to replace the current financial infrastructure of the world. Cardano is using Proof of Stake to ensure security and decentralisation(Shelley). Scaling through parallel computation (Hydra in Basho), Sidechains to allow the platform to interact with other platforms (Basho), and also include mechanisms for voting for project funding, changes to the protocol and improvement proposals (Voltaire). Finally smart contracts platform for new and established projects that are developer friendly (Goguen).
Who is the team behind Cardano? There are three organisations that are contributing to the development of Cardano. The first is the Cardano Foundation, an objective, non-profit organisation based in Switzerland. Its core responsibilities are to nurture, grow and educate Cardano users and commercial communities, to engage with authorities on regulatory and commercial matters and to act as a blockchain and cryptocurrency standards body. The second entity is IOHK, a leading cryptocurrency research and development company, which holds the contract to develop the platform until 2020. The final business partner is Emurgo, which invests in start-ups and assists commercial ventures to build on the Cardano blockchain.
www.Cardano.org www.emurgo.io https://cardanofoundation.org/en/
What is the difference between Proof of Work and Proof of stake? Both these protocols are known as “consensus protocols” that confirm whether a transaction is valid or invalid without a middleman like Visa or your bank. Every node (active and updated copy of the blockchain) can agree that the transaction did take place legitimately. If more than half validators agree, then the ledger is updated and the transaction is now secured. Proof-of-Work (PoW) happens when a miner is elected to solve an exceptionally difficult math problem and gets credit for adding a verified block to the blockchain. Finding a solution is an arduous guessing game that takes a considerable amount of computing power to compete for the correct answer. It is like “pick a number between 1 and one trillion” and when you get it right, you get $30,000 in Bitcoin, so the more computers you have working on it, the faster you can solve it. Also the more people who are trying to solve the same block, the harder the algorithm, so it may become 1 in 20 trillion. The downside is the massive amounts of power required to run the computers that run the network, and the slow pace that blocks are solved. To “Hack” a PoW system, you need 51% of the computing power, which would allow you to deny transactions, or spend the same coin twice. At the moment there are 8 main mining operations for bitcoin, and 4 of them make up more that 51% of the mining power.
PoS instead selects a coin at random that already exists, and the person who owns that coin is elected to put the work in to validate the block. This means there is no contest and no guessing game. Some computer power is required, but only a fraction of a PoW system. The complex nature of selecting a coin that exists on the correct and longest chain and is owned by someone who can complete the block, AND in such a way that it is secure AND that computer currently running AND that person also having an incentive to complete the work, has made the development of PoS very slow. However only a few years ago it wasn’t even possible. In this method, the more of the coin (ADA) you stake, the more likely you are to be selected to close a block. Cardano also allows you to delegate your stake to someone else to validate the block so they do the work, and you share in the reward for doing so.
To “hack” a PoS blockchain you need to own 51% of the tokens, which is significantly harder than owning 51% of the computing power.
What is ADA and how is it different to Cardano? Cardano is the name of the network infrastructure, and can be thought of like a rail network. ADA is the native token that has been developed alongside Cardano to facilitate the network operation. This helps confusion and maintains distinction, compared to Ethereum being the native token of Ethereum. Similar to bitcoin or any other token, ADA can be sent peer to peer as payment, but is also the reward for running the network, and what is taken as transaction fees.
In this metaphor “Cardano” is the train tracks, that everything runs on. A stake pool would be the locomotive, facilitating transactions on the network while ADA is the coal that powers the locomotive. The train carriages are Decentralised applications (Dapps) that are also running on cardano tracks, but are not actively powering the network.
What is staking Cardano is a Proof of Stake protocol, and uses already existing coins like a marker to ensure security. The protocol chooses a coin at random and the owner of that coin is elected to validate a block of transactions. Staking is the process of adding your ADA coins to a Pool that has the resources to run the network. If the pool you have chosen to "delegate" your stake to is chosen to close/validate a block, then you get a portion of the rewards. The ADA never leaves your wallet, and you can "undelegate" whenever you like. this increases stability of the network and also gives an incentive to pool operators to invest the time and hardware required to run a pool.
What is a stake-pool and how does it work? Cardano.org FAQ on the issue goes into much more detail
A stake pool is where the computing power of the network takes place. During ITN there was 1200 registered stake pools while 300 were creating blocks. You can manage your own stake-pool or delegate your ADA to an already registered pool. Rewards are determined by the protocol, however the pool may elect to charge fee Percentages, or flat rate fee to upkeep their pool.
Can I Stake my ADA right now? The staking testnet has closed, If you participated in the Incentivised Test Net and earned rewards, instructions to check the balance are here.
However if you have just purchased some or it was held on an exchange, then you will need to wait until the Shelley mainnet launch happening at the end of July 2020.
Where do I stake my ADA? Daedalus Flight wallet, and Yoroi Wallet (as a chrome extension) are the current best options. Adalite and several other third-party wallets also exist. Coinbase will also allow staking as a custodial service, and many exchanges may offer “staking as a service” so you can leave your coins on the exchange and still earn rewards if you enjoy trading. I do not recommend leaving coins on an exchange unless you are actively trading.
What are the staking rewards now and what can I expect on a return in the future? The Incentivised Test Net (ITN) Delivered 10%-15%pa returns on average. The future of staking will most likely be lower, but will depend on the amount of ADA staked across the network and the amount of network traffic.
Check https://staking.cardano.org/en/calculato for a clearer picture.
what is a Pledge? To stop one person operating many pools, the rewards that a pool earns will vary depending on the amount of personal ADA they “pledge” to open the pool. This means that 50 pools with a 1,00ADA pledge each will be overall less profitable than 1-2 pool with the max ADA pledge (unknown but likely around 300k). Even if the 50 pools have the same over stake delegated by other users and have a better chance of being selected to close a block, the 50 pools may receive lower rewards.. (at least that is the theory)
Who is IOHK? IOHK is a for-profit software engineering company founded by CEO Charles Hoskinson and Jeremy Wood in 2015 that has taken a scientific approach to the development of blockchain. IOHK started with “first principles” and looked at questions like “what is a blockchain” and “what should a blockchain be able to do” rather than accepting the established paradigm of Bitcoin and Ethereum. IOHK was originally Input Output Hong Kong, but is now Input Output Global and is based in Wyoming USA employing over 230 staff. IOHK has established research labs in several universities in order to complete the Cardano project, and is also developing Ethereum Classic, Atala, Mantis and possibly other Blockchain related programs and infrastructure.
Who is Charles? Charles Hoskinson is an early adopter of cryptocurrencies, American entrepreneur and cryptocurrency specialist. Charles Co-founded Ethereum with Vitalik Buterin and 5-8 others, However he only worked on that project for approximately six-months. Charles is now the CEO of IOHK and the director of The Bitcoin Education Project.
Why isn’t ADA on coinbase? Cardano and coinbase have recently connected in a big way. With IOHK turning over all their ADA to the custodial services of Coinbase. This means that Cardano and Coinbase have been working together for some time and there is a strong partnership forming. Staking and cold storage will be available and trading on Coinbase will most likely become available after the release of Shelley (although no official word yet)
Why Doesn’t Cardano have a Wikipedia Page? Wikipedia has strict guidelines on what can be turned into an article. As there has been no coverage of Cardano from mainstream media or “noteworthy” sources, there is no article yet. Wikipedia will also not accept sources from IOHK as they are not considered “reliable” and must come from a third party. This will most likely change soon.
Cardano does have a dedicated community driven wiki
https://cardanowiki.info/wiki/Home
What is Atala and why do I care?*
Atala is a suite of services being developed on top of the cardano blockchain by IOHK that focusses on credential certification, for things like education, work history and degrees (Atala Prism). Product counterfeiting protection through registering products on a blockchain and create taper-proof provenance. This does not only apply to Gucci handbags, but also medication, art, and anything that can be counterfeited (Atala Scan). As well as supply chain tracking to see issues and inefficiencies with greater transparency(Atala Trace).
Im new, how much is a good investment?
Cardano is still a speculative market and although there is amazing potential here, it is still only potential. When investing in any High risk market like Crypto, only every invest what you are willing to lose. Cardano may be testing the 10c barrier now. But in March it dumped to 1.7c. And if you suddenly need your money back during the dump then you are out of luck. Do your research before you FOMO in. Start with a small amount and send it between wallets and exchanges to understand how the system works. Store your private keys offline (or online cloud service but encrypted) with a method that is unlikely to be damaged AND have multiple copies. So in the case of a house fire or a blow to the head, or the cloud service being shutdown/destroyed, you do not lose your money.
Timelines
https://roadmap.cardano.org/en/
Shelley Decentralisation rollout and news
Goguen smart contract rollout
Voltaire Voting mechanics – no official roll out timeline (though promised for 2020)
Basho scaling and sidechains – no official roll out time line (most likely 2021)
submitted by YourBestMateRobbo to cardano [link] [comments]

Cardano FAQ - V2

Cardano FAQ
What is Cardano? Cardano is an open source highly secure "Third Generation" blockchain project being developed by IOHK. Development and research started in 2015, with the 1.0 mainnet launching in 2017. Cardano blockchain is currently being developed into two layers. The first one is the ledger of account values, and the second one is the reason why values are transferred from one account to the other.
  1. Cardano Settlement Layer (CSL) - The CSL acts as the ledger of account or balance ledger. This is an idea created as an improvement of bitcoin blockchain. It uses a proof-of-stake consensus algorithm to generate new blocks and confirm transactions.
  2. Cardano Computation Layer (CCL) - The CCL contains the data how values are transferred. Since the computation layer is not connected to balance ledger, users of the CCL can create customized rules when evaluating transactions. (https://support.bitkub.com/hc/en-us/articles/360006678892-What-are-the-two-layers-of-Cardano-)
IOHK has the contract with an undisclosed party to develop the project until the end of 2020, at which point the community may elect another - on the assumption that the voting infrastructure has been completed. However CEO Charles Hoskinson has stated that they will develop the project until it is completed, and they are simply financed until the end of 2020.
Cardano was the first project built on a peer-reviewed scientific development method, resulting in dozens of research papers produced by IOHK. Among these papers is Ouroboros Genesis, proving that a Proof of Stake protocol can be just as secure as Proof of Work, which was originally developed for Bitcoin, and refined for Ethereum. This PoS protocol considerably lowers the resources cost to maintain network while still maintaining security and network speed.
Cardano as a financial infrastructure is not yet completed, With significant development to be rolled out.
What were the other two generations of blockchain? Gen 1 was Bitcoin. It exists by itself and talks to nobody but bitcoin. It is capable of peer to peer transactions without a third party in such a way that you cannot cheat the system. this was a major step forward for the E-cash concept.
Gen 2 was Ethereum and other smart-contract platforms that allow other coins to be built on top of their infrastructure. These coins can interact with others on the platform, but cannot interact with other platforms like Stella, Bitcoin, cardano - and so on. Also most Gen 2 blockchains are also using Proof of Work likes Bitcoin, which effects scaling.
Gen 3 blockchains are using Proof of Stake to ensure scaling, Sidechains to allow the platform to interact with other platforms, like ethereum and bitcoin, and also include smart contracts that are developer friendly.
Who is the team behind Cardano? There are three organisations that are contributing to the development of Cardano. The first is the Cardano Foundation, an objective, non-profit organisation based in Switzerland. Its core responsibilities are to nurture, grow and educate Cardano users and commercial communities, to engage with authorities on regulatory and commercial matters and to act as a blockchain and cryptocurrency standards body. The second entity working on Cardano is IOHK, a leading cryptocurrency research and development company, which holds the contract to develop the platform until 2020. The final business partner is Emurgo, which invests in start-ups and assists commercial ventures to build on the Cardano blockchain. (from https://www.cardano.org/en/help-support/)
What is the difference between PoS and PoW? Both these protocols are known as “consensus protocols” that confirm whether a transaction is valid or invalid without a middleman like Visa or your bank. Every node (active and updated copy of the blockchain) can agree that the transaction did take place legitimately. If more than half the network agrees, then the transaction is validated. Proof-of-Work (PoW) happens when a miner solves an exceptionally difficult math problem and gets credit for adding a verified block to the blockchain. Finding a solution is an arduous guessing game that takes a considerable amount of computing power to compete for the correct answer. It is like “pick a number between 1 and one trillion” and when you get it right, you get $30,000 in Bitcoin, so the more computers you have working on it, the faster you can solve it. Also the more people who are trying to solve the same block, the harder the algorithm, so it may become 1 in 20 trillion. The downside is the massive amounts of power required to run the computers that run the network, and the slow pace that blocks are solved. To “Hack” a PoW system, you need 51% of the computing power, which would allow you to deny transactions, or spend the same coin twice.
PoS instead selects a coin at random that already exists, and the person who owns that coin is elected to put the work in to validate the block. This means there is no contest and no guessing game. Some computer power is required, but only a fraction of a PoW system. The complex nature of selecting a coin that exists on the correct and longest chain and is owned by someone who can complete the block, AND in such a way that it is secure AND that computer currently running AND that person also having an incentive to complete the work, has made the development of PoS very slow. However only a few years ago it wasn’t even possible. In this method, the more of the coin (ADA) you stake, the more likely you are to be selected to close a block. Cardano also allows you to delegate your stake to someone else to validate the block so they do the work, and you share in the reward for doing so.
To “hack” a PoS blockchain you need to own 51% of the tokens, which is significantly harder than owning 51% of the computing power.
What is ADA and how is it different to Cardano? Cardano is the name of the network infrastructure, and can be thought of like a rail network. ADA is the native token that has been developed alongside Cardano to facilitate the network operation. This helps confusion and maintains distinction, compared to Ethereum being the native token of Ethereum. Similar to bitcoin or any other token, ADA can be sent peer to peer as payment, but is also the reward for running the network, and what is taken as transaction fees.
In this metaphor “Cardano” is the train tracks, that everything runs on. A stake pool would be the locomotive, facilitating transactions on the network while ADA is the coal that powers the locomotive. The train carriages are Decentralised applications (Dapps) that are also running on cardano tracks, but are not actively powering the network.
What is staking Cardano is a Proof of Stake protocol, and uses already existing coins like a marker to ensure security. The protocol chooses a coin at random and the owner of that coin is elected to validate a block of transactions. Staking is the process of adding your ADA coins to a Pool that has the resources to run the network. If the pool you have chosen to "delegate" your stake to is chosen to close/validate a block, then you get a portion of the rewards. The ADA never leaves your wallet, and you can "undelegate" whenever you like. this increases stability of the network and also gives an incentive to pool operators to invest the time and hardware required to run a pool.
What is a stake-pool and how does it work? A stake pool is where the computing power of the network takes place. Currently there are 1200 registered stake pools while 300 are creating blocks. You can manage your own stake-pool or delegate your ADA to an already registered pool. Rewards are determined by the protocol, however the pool may elect to charge fee Percentages, or flat rate fee to upkeep their pool.
Can I Stake my ADA right now? If you had ADA in a Yoroi or Daedalus wallet before November 2019 then yes, you can stake. However if you have just purchased some or it was held on an exchange, then you will need to wait until August 18 (hopefully) for pools to start creating blocks, and first staking rewards will be 5 days later.
Where do I stake my ADA? Daedalus Flight wallet - Or Daedalus ITN, and Yoroi Wallet (as a chrome extension) are the current best options.
What are the staking rewards now and what can I expect on a return in the future? At the moment the Incentivised Test Net (ITN) is delivering 10%-15%pa returns on average. The future of staking will most likely be lower, but will depend on the amount of ADA staked across the network and the amount of network traffic. However it should not be completely dissimilar from the ITN, with most speculating 6%-10%pa compounding weekly….at this point there is no solid answer
what is a Pledge? To stop one person operating many pools, the rewards that a pool earns will vary depending on the amount of personal ADA they “pledge” to open the pool. This means that 100 pools with a 10,00ADA pledge will be overall less profitable than 1 pool with 1,000,000 ADA pledge. (at least that is the theory)
Who is IOHK? IOHK is a for-profit software engineering company founded by CEO Charles Hoskinson and Jeremy Wood in 2015 that has taken a scientific approach to the development of blockchain. IOHK started with “first principles” and looked at questions like “what is a blockchain” and “what should a blockchain be able to do” rather than accepting the established paradigm of Bitcoin and Ethereum. IOHK was originally Input Output Hong Kong, but is now Input Output Global and is based in Wyoming USA employing over 230 staff. IOHK has established research labs in several universities in order to complete the Cardano project, and is also developing Ethereum Classic, Atilia, Mantis and possibly other Blockchain related programs and infrastructure.
Who is Charles? Charles Hoskinson is an American entrepreneur and cryptocurrency specialist. Charles is often cited in the media as the Co-founder of Ethereum, but only worked on that project for approximately six-months. Charles is now the CEO of IOHK and the director of The Bitcoin Education Project.
Why isn’t ADA on coinbase? There is no official word specifically as to why Cardano is not on Coinbase, However there prevailing theory is that Coinbase requires the coins to be decentralised. and as Cardano is still being developed, it will not be added Shelley is released, or possibly never, it is totally up to coinbase. However Charles did mention in an AMA that IOG has been working with many exchanges for the Shelley rollout.
Why Doesn’t Cardano have a Wikipedia Page? Wikipedia has strict guidelines on what can be turned into an article. As there has been no coverage of Cardano from mainstream media or “noteworthy” sources, there is no article yet. Wikipedia will also not accept sources from IOHK as they are not considered “reliable” and must come from a third party. This will most likely change soon.
Cardano does have a dedicated community driven wiki
https://cardanowiki.info/wiki/Home
submitted by YourBestMateRobbo to cardano [link] [comments]

Cardano FAQ - V1 - Feedback requested

Cardano FAQ
What is Cardano? - Cardano is an open source highly secure blockchain 3.0 project being developed by IOHK. Development and research started in 2015, with the 1.0 mainnet launching in 2017. Cardano blockchain is currently being developed into two layers. The first one is the ledger of account values and the second one is the reason why values are transferred from one account to the other.
  1. Cardano Settlement Layer (CSL) - The CSL acts as the ledger of account or balance ledger. This is an idea created as an improvement of bitcoin blockchain. It uses a proof-of-stake consensus algorithm to generate new blocks and confirm transactions.
  2. Cardano Computation Layer (CCL) - The CCL contains the data how values are transferred. Since the computation layer is not connected to balance ledger, users of the CCL can create customized rules when evaluating transactions. (https://support.bitkub.com/hc/en-us/articles/360006678892-What-are-the-two-layers-of-Cardano-)
IHOK has the contract with an undisclosed party to develop the project until the end of 2020, at which point the community may elect another - on the assumption that the voting infrastructure has been completed. However CEO Charles Hoskinson has stated that they will develop the project until it is completed, and they are simply financed until the end of 2020.
Cardano was the first project built on a peer-reviewed scientific development method, resulting in dozens of research papers produced by IOHK. Amongst these papers is Ouroboros Genesis, proving that a Proof of Stake protocol can be just as secure as Proof of Work, which was originally developed for Bitcoin, and refined for Ethereum. This PoS protocol considerably lowers the resources cost to maintain network while still maintaining security and network speed.
Cardano as a financial infrastructure is not yet completed, With significant development to be rolled out.
Who is the team behind Cardano? There are three organisations that are contributing to the development of Cardano. The first is the Cardano Foundation, an objective, non-profit organisation based in Switzerland. Its core responsibilities are to nurture, grow and educate Cardano users and commercial communities, to engage with authorities on regulatory and commercial matters and to act as a blockchain and cryptocurrency standards body. The second entity working on Cardano is IOHK, a leading cryptocurrency research and development company, which holds the contract to develop the platform until 2020. The final business partner is Emurgo, which invests in start-ups and assists commercial ventures to build on the Cardano blockchain. (from https://www.cardano.org/en/help-support/)
What is the difference between PoS and PoW? Both these protocols are known as “consensus protocols” that confirm whether a transaction is valid or invalid without a middleman like Visa or your bank. Every node (active and updated copy of the blockchain) can agree that the transaction did take place legitimately. If more than half the network agrees, then the transaction is validated. Proof-of-Work (PoW) happens when a miner solves an exceptionally difficult math problem and gets credit for adding a verified block to the blockchain. Finding a solution is an arduous guessing game that takes a considerable amount of computing power to compete for the correct answer. It is like “pick a number between 1 and one trillion” and when you get it right, you get $30,000 in Bitcoin, so the more computers you have working on it, the faster you can solve it. Also the more people who are trying to solve the same block, the harder the algorithm, so it may become 1 in 20 trillion. The downside is the massive amounts of power required to run the computers that run the network, and the slow pace that blocks are solved. To “Hack” a PoW system, you need 51% of the computing power, which would allow you to deny transactions, or spend the same coin twice.
PoS instead selects a coin at random that already exists, and the person who owns that coin is elected to put the work in to validate the block. This means there is no contest and no guessing game. Some computer power is required, but only a fraction of a PoW system. The complex nature of selecting a coin that exists on the correct and longest chain and is owned by someone who can complete the block, AND in such a way that it is secure AND that computer currently running AND that person also having an incentive to complete the work, has made the development of PoS very slow. However only a few years ago it wasn’t even possible. In this method, the more of the coin (ADA) you stake, the more likely you are to be selected to close a block. Cardano also allows you to delegate your stake to someone else to validate the block so they do the work, and you share in the reward for doing so.
To “hack” a PoS blockchain you need to own 51% of the tokens, which is significantly harder than owning 51% of the computing power.
What is ADA and how is it different to Cardano?
Cardano is the name of the network infrastructure, and can be thought of like a rail network. ADA is the native token that has been developed alongside Cardano to facilitate the network operation. This helps confusion and maintains distinction, compared to Ethereum being the native token of Ethereum. Similar to bitcoin or any other token, ADA can be sent peer to peer as payment, but is also the reward for running the network, and what is taken as transaction fees.
In this metaphor “Cardano” is the train tracks, that everything runs on. A stake pool would be the locomotive, facilitating transactions on the network while ADA is the coal that powers the locomotive. The train carriages are Decentralised applications (Dapps) that are also running on cardano tracks, but are not actively powering the network.
Can I Stake my ADA right now? If you had ADA in a Yoroi or Daedalus wallet before November 2019 then yes, you can stake. However if you have just purchased some or it was held on an exchange, then you will need to wait until August 18 (hopefully) for the release of the full staking capability. Where do I stake my ADA? Daedalus Flight wallet - Or Daedalus ITN, and Yoroi Wallet (as a chrome extension) are the current best options.
What are the staking rewards now and what can I expect on a return in the future? At the moment the Incentivised Test Net (ITN) is delivering 10%-15%pa returns on average. The future of staking will most likely be lower, but will depend on the amount of ADA staked across the network and the amount of network traffic. However it should not be completely dissimilar from the ITN, with most speculating 6%-10%pa compounding weekly….at this point there is no solid answer
What is a stake-pool and how does it work? A stake pool is where the computing power of the network takes place. Currently there are 1200 registered stake pools while 300 are creating blocks. You can manage your own stake-pool or delegate your ADA to an already registered pool. Rewards are determined by the protocol, however the pool may elect to charge fee Percentages, or flat rate fee to upkeep their pool.
what is a Pledge? To stop one person operating many pools, the rewards that a pool earns will vary depending on the amount of personal ADA they “pledge” to open the pool. This means that 100 pools with a 10,00ADA pledge will be overall less profitable than 1 pool with 1,000,000 ADA pledge. (at least that is the theory)
Who is IOHK? IOHK is a for-profit software engineering company founded by CEO Charles Hoskinson and Jeremy Wood in 2015 that has taken a scientific approach to the development of blockchain. IOHK started with “first principles” and looked at questions like “what is a blockchain” and “what should a blockchain be able to do” rather than accepting the established paradigm of Bitcoin and Ethereum. IOHK was originally Input Output Hong Kong, but is now Input Output Global and is based in Wyoming USA employing over 230 staff. IOHK has established research labs in several universities in order to complete the Cardano project, and is also developing Ethereum Classic, Atilia, Mantis and possibly other Blockchain related programs and infrastructure.
Who is Charles? Charles Hoskinson is an American entrepreneur and cryptocurrency specialist. Charles is often cited in the media as the Co-founder of Ethereum, but only worked on that project for approximately six-months. Charles is now the CEO of IOHK and the director of The Bitcoin Education Project.
Why isn’t ADA on coinbase? Coinbase requires the coins to essentially be “finished” and as Cardano is still being developed, it will not be added until there is more development rolled out.
Why Doesn’t Cardano have a Wikipedia Page? Wikipedia has strict guidelines on what can be turned into an article. As there has been no coverage of Cardano from mainstream media or “noteworthy” sources, there is no article yet. Wikipedia will also not accept sources from IOHK as they are not considered “reliable” and must come from a third party. This will most likely change soon.
submitted by YourBestMateRobbo to cardano [link] [comments]

Beginner’s question

I know that you can’t buy BC with credit card, since most banks will reject that (rightfully), so most people use giftcards or wire transfers..but let’s say you get the right amazon card for the bitcoins you want to buy, how can you get your money back if no bank will not accept to receive since they reject to give anyway?
Sorry if I sound dumb, just beginner
submitted by evil_chicken86 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Safest place to buy BTC with a credit card for long term holding?

Currently hold quite a lot in stocks/ETFs and want to have a small crypto portfolio. What's the best way to buy BTC with a credit card for long term holding (not trading)? Thanks in advance.
submitted by mrbrantoast_ to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Top-5 Ways To Buy Bitcoin Instantly

The choice of the optimal ways to buy Bitcoin depends on three factors: how much information you want to disclose, what is the amount of the transaction and what level of security you require. However, it is almost impossible to comply with all 3 factors. So, what is the best way to buy Bitcoin?

1. Stock exchange

The best way to buy crypto is to use an exchange (Binance, Coinbase Pro, Huobi Global), where one can sell and buy digital currency from other investors. The price is set manually. In this case, the commission charged by the intermediary will not exceed 1%. The exchange provides anonymity since you don’t need to provide your ID in most exchanges. There are several options for transactions:
If you want to know how to begin investing in Bitcoin, start studying stock exchanges.

Pros:

Cons:

2. Exchanger

A crypto exchanger (Localbitcoins, Lykke, F-change) allows exchanging fiat or other tokens for BTC according to a fixed rate. It is probably the easiest way to buy crypto. The service adds a commission higher than that on the stock exchange.

Pros:

Cons:

3. ATMs for BTC

ATMs for Bitcoins only enter the market. It is enough to have the necessary amount of cash to be able to exchange it for the equivalent in BTC. Such a transaction is instant and does not require registration or other formalities. There are now over 8500 BTC ATMs around the world.

4. For cash with individuals

A hand-to-hand sale is the most private and most insecure way to buy cryptocurrency. It is lucky if you know reliable miners or crypto businessmen. Rent, salary, taxes – all this requires ordinary money, so they constantly have a need to sell mined or earned cryptocurrency. Pros – maximum anonymity of transactions. Cons – risks from dishonest partners.

5. Telegram bots

Telegram bot is an automatic script based on the search for offers and counteroffers. If someone wants to sell BTC, they send a request to the bot and it looks for a counter offer. As soon as someone sends a request for the purchase of Bitcoin, the bot will complete a transaction between these two users.

Pros:

Cons:

Disclaimer

While talking about the ways to buy Bitcoin, it is important to mention that this article doesn’t provide any advice and directions regarding the investments in particular cryptocurrencies and pursues only informative purposes.
submitted by CoinjoyAssistant to btc [link] [comments]

Crypto-Powered - The Most Promising Use-Cases of Decentralized Finance (DeFi)

Crypto-Powered - The Most Promising Use-Cases of Decentralized Finance (DeFi)
A whirlwind tour of Defi, paying close attention to protocols that we’re leveraging at Genesis Block.
https://reddit.com/link/hrrt21/video/cvjh5rrh12b51/player
This is the third post of Crypto-Powered — a new series that examines what it means for Genesis Block to be a digital bank that’s powered by crypto, blockchain, and decentralized protocols.
Last week we explored how building on legacy finance is a fool’s errand. The future of money belongs to those who build with crypto and blockchain at their core. We also started down the crypto rabbit hole, introducing Bitcoin, Ethereum, and DeFi (decentralized finance). That post is required reading if you hope to glean any value from the rest of this series.
97% of all activity on Ethereum in the last quarter has been DeFi-related. The total value sitting inside DeFi protocols is roughly $2B — double what it was a month ago. The explosive growth cannot be ignored. All signs suggest that Ethereum & DeFi are a Match Made in Heaven, and both on their way to finding strong product/market fit.
So in this post, we’re doing a whirlwind tour of DeFi. We look at specific examples and use-cases already in the wild and seeing strong growth. And we pay close attention to protocols that Genesis Block is integrating with. Alright, let’s dive in.

Stablecoins

Stablecoins are exactly what they sound like: cryptocurrencies that are stable. They are not meant to be volatile (like Bitcoin). These assets attempt to peg their price to some external reference (eg. USD or Gold). A non-volatile crypto asset can be incredibly useful for things like merchant payments, cross-border transfers, or storing wealth — becoming your own bank but without the stress of constant price volatility.
There are major governments and central banks that are experimenting with or soon launching their own stablecoins like China with their digital yuan and the US Federal Reserve with their digital dollar. There are also major corporations working in this area like JP Morgan with their JPM Coin, and of course Facebook with their Libra Project.
Stablecoin activity has grown 800% in the last year, with $290B of transaction volume (funds moving on-chain).
The most popular USD-pegged stablecoins include:
  1. Tether ($10B): It’s especially popular in Asia. It’s backed by USD in a bank account. But given their lack of transparency and past controversies, they generally aren’t trusted as much in the West.
  2. USDC ($1B): This is the most reputable USD-backed stablecoin, at least in the West. It was created by Coinbase & Circle, both well-regarded crypto companies. They’ve been very open and transparent with their audits and bank records.
  3. DAI ($189M): This is backed by other crypto assets — not USD in a bank account. This was arguably the first true DeFi protocol. The big benefit is that it’s more decentralized — it’s not controlled by any single organization. The downside is that the assets backing it can be volatile crypto assets (though it has mechanisms in place to mitigate that risk).
Other notable USD-backed stablecoins include PAX, TrueUSD, Binance USD, and Gemini Dollar.
tablecoins are playing an increasingly important role in the world of DeFi. In a way, they serve as common pipes & bridges between the various protocols.
https://preview.redd.it/v9ki2qro12b51.png?width=700&format=png&auto=webp&s=dbf591b122fc4b3d83b381389145b88e2505b51d

Lending & Borrowing

Three of the top five DeFi protocols relate to lending & borrowing. These popular lending protocols look very similar to traditional money markets. Users who want to earn interest/yield can deposit (lend) their funds into a pool of liquidity. Because it behaves similarly to traditional money markets, their funds are not locked, they can withdraw at any time. It’s highly liquid.
Borrowers can tap into this pool of liquidity and take out loans. Interest rates depend on the utilization rate of the pool — how much of the deposits in the pool have already been borrowed. Supply & demand. Thus, interest rates are variable and borrowers can pay their loans back at any time.
So, who decides how much a borrower can take? What’s the process like? Are there credit checks? How is credit-worthiness determined?
These protocols are decentralized, borderless, permissionless. The people participating in these markets are from all over the world. There is no simple way to verify identity or check credit history. So none of that happens.
Credit-worthiness is determined simply by how much crypto collateral the borrower puts into the protocol. For example, if a user wants to borrow $5k of USDC, then they’ll need to deposit $10k of BTC or ETH. The exact amount of collateral depends on the rules of the protocol — usually the more liquid the collateral asset, the more borrowing power the user can receive.
The most prominent lending protocols include Compound, Aave, Maker, and Atomic Loans. Recently, Compound has seen meteoric growth with the introduction of their COMP token — a token used to incentivize and reward participants of the protocol. There’s almost $1B in outstanding debt in the Compound protocol. Mainframe is also working on an exciting protocol in this area and the latest iteration of their white paper should be coming out soon.
There is very little economic risk to these protocols because all loans are overcollateralized.
I repeat, all loans are overcollateralized. If the value of the collateral depreciates significantly due to price volatility, there are sophisticated liquidation systems to ensure the loan always gets paid back.
https://preview.redd.it/rru5fykv12b51.png?width=700&format=png&auto=webp&s=620679dd84fca098a042051c7e7e1697be8dd259

Investments

Buying, selling, and trading crypto assets is certainly one form of investing (though not for the faint of heart). But there are now DeFi protocols to facilitate making and managing traditional-style investments.
Through DeFi, you can invest in Gold. You can invest in stocks like Amazon and Apple. You can short Tesla. You can access the S&P 500. This is done through crypto-based synthetics — which gives users exposure to assets without needing to hold or own the underlying asset. This is all possible with protocols like UMA, Synthetix, or Market protocol.
Maybe your style of investing is more passive. With PoolTogether , you can participate in a no-loss lottery.
Maybe you’re an advanced trader and want to trade options or futures. You can do that with DeFi protocols like Convexity, Futureswap, and dYdX. Maybe you live on the wild side and trade on margin or leverage, you can do that with protocols like Fulcrum, Nuo, and DDEX. Or maybe you’re a degenerate gambler and want to bet against Trump in the upcoming election, you can do that on Augur.
And there are plenty of DeFi protocols to help with crypto investing. You could use Set Protocol if you need automated trading strategies. You could use Melonport if you’re an asset manager. You could use Balancer to automatically rebalance your portfolio.
With as little as $1, people all over the world can have access to the same investment opportunities and tools that used to be reserved for only the wealthy, or those lucky enough to be born in the right country.
You can start to imagine how services like Etrade, TD Ameritrade, Schwab, and even Robinhood could be massively disrupted by a crypto-native company that builds with these types of protocols at their foundation.
https://preview.redd.it/agco8msx12b51.png?width=700&format=png&auto=webp&s=3bbb595f9ecc84758d276dbf82bc5ddd9e329ff8

Insurance

As mentioned in our previous post, there are near-infinite applications one can build on Ethereum. As a result, sometimes the code doesn’t work as expected. Bugs get through, it breaks. We’re still early in our industry. The tools, frameworks, and best practices are all still being established. Things can go wrong.
Sometimes the application just gets in a weird or bad state where funds can’t be recovered — like with what happened with Parity where $280M got frozen (yes, I lost some money in that). Sometimes, there are hackers who discover a vulnerability in the code and maliciously steal funds — like how dForce lost $25M a few months ago, or how The DAO lost $50M a few years ago. And sometimes the system works as designed, but the economic model behind it is flawed, so a clever user takes advantage of the system— like what recently happened with Balancer where they lost $500k.
There are a lot of risks when interacting with smart contracts and decentralized applications — especially for ones that haven’t stood the test of time. This is why insurance is such an important development in DeFi.
Insurance will be an essential component in helping this technology reach the masses.
Two protocols that are leading the way on DeFi insurance are Nexus Mutual and Opyn. Though they are both still just getting started, many people are already using them. And we’re excited to start working with them at Genesis Block.
https://preview.redd.it/wf1xvq3z12b51.png?width=700&format=png&auto=webp&s=70db1e9587f57d0c470a4f9f4523c216929e1876

Exchanges & Liquidity

Decentralized Exchanges (DEX) were one of the first and most developed categories in DeFi. A DEX allows a user to easily exchange one crypto asset for another crypto asset — but without needing to sign up for an account, verify identity, etc. It’s all via decentralized protocols.
Within the first 5 months of 2020, the top 7 DEX already achieved the 2019 trading volume. That was $2.5B. DeFi is fueling a lot of this growth.
https://preview.redd.it/1dwvq4e022b51.png?width=700&format=png&auto=webp&s=97a3d756f60239cd147031eb95fc2a981db55943
There are many different flavors of DEX. Some of the early ones included 0x, IDEX, and EtherDelta — all of which had a traditional order book model where buyers are matched with sellers.
Another flavor is the pooled liquidity approach where the price is determined algorithmically based on how much liquidity there is and how much the user wants to buy. This is known as an AMM (Automated Market Maker) — Uniswap and Bancor were early leaders here. Though lately, Balancer has seen incredible growth due mostly to their strong incentives for participation — similar to Compound.
There are some DEXs that are more specialized — for example, Curve and mStable focus mostly only stablecoins. Because of the proliferation of these decentralized exchanges, there are now aggregators that combine and connect the liquidity of many sources. Those include Kyber, Totle, 1Inch, and Dex.ag.
These decentralized exchanges are becoming more and more connected to DeFi because they provide an opportunity for yield and earning interest.
Users can earn passive income by supplying liquidity to these markets. It usually comes in the form of sharing transaction fee revenue (Uniswap) or token rewards (Balancer).
https://preview.redd.it/wrug6lg222b51.png?width=700&format=png&auto=webp&s=9c47a3f2e01426ca87d84b92c1e914db39ff773f

Payments

As it relates to making payments, much of the world is still stuck on plastic cards. We’re grateful to partner with Visa and launch the Genesis Block debit card… but we still don’t believe that's the future of payments. We see that as an important bridge between the past (legacy finance) and the future (crypto).
Our first post in this series shared more on why legacy finance is broken. We talked about the countless unnecessary middle-men on every card swipe (merchant, acquiring bank, processor, card network, issuing bank). We talked about the slow settlement times.
The future of payments will be much better. Yes, it’ll be from a mobile phone and the user experience will be similar to ApplePay (NFC) or WePay (QR Code).
But more importantly, the underlying assets being moved/exchanged will all be crypto — digital, permissionless, and open source.
Someone making a payment at the grocery store check-out line will be able to open up Genesis Block, use contactless tech or scan a QR code, and instantly pay for their goods. All using crypto. Likely a stablecoin. Settlement will be instant. All the middlemen getting their pound of flesh will be disintermediated. The merchant can make more and the user can spend less. Blockchain FTW!
Now let’s talk about a few projects working in this area. The xDai Burner Wallet experience was incredible at the ETHDenver event a few years ago, but that speed came at the expense of full decentralization (can it be censored or shut down?). Of course, Facebook’s Libra wants to become the new standard for global payments, but many are afraid to give Facebook that much control (newsflash: it isn’t very decentralized).
Bitcoin is decentralized… but it’s slow and volatile. There are strong projects like Lightning Network (Zap example) that are still trying to make it happen. Projects like Connext and OmiseGo are trying to help bring payments to Ethereum. The Flexa project is leveraging the gift card rails, which is a nice hack to leverage existing pipes. And if ETH 2.0 is as fast as they say it will be, then the future of payments could just be a stablecoin like DAI (a token on Ethereum).
In a way, being able to spend crypto on daily expenses is the holy grail of use-cases. It’s still early. It hasn’t yet been solved. But once we achieve this, then we can ultimately and finally say goodbye to the legacy banking & finance world. Employees can be paid in crypto. Employees can spend in crypto. It changes everything.
Legacy finance is hanging on by a thread, and it’s this use-case that they are still clinging to. Once solved, DeFi domination will be complete.
https://preview.redd.it/svft1ce422b51.png?width=700&format=png&auto=webp&s=9a6afc9e9339a3fec29ee2ae743c07c3042ea4ce

Impact on Genesis Block

At Genesis Block, we’re excited to leverage these protocols and take this incredible technology to the world. Many of these protocols are already deeply integrated with our product. In fact, many are essential. The masses won’t know (or care about) what Tether, USDC, or DAI is. They think in dollars, euros, pounds and pesos. So while the user sees their local currency in the app, the underlying technology is all leveraging stablecoins. It’s all on “crypto rails.”
https://preview.redd.it/jajzttr622b51.png?width=700&format=png&auto=webp&s=fcf55cea1216a1d2fcc3bf327858b009965f9bf8
When users deposit assets into their Genesis Block account, they expect to earn interest. They expect that money to grow. We leverage many of these low-risk lending/exchange DeFi protocols. We lend into decentralized money markets like Compound — where all loans are overcollateralized. Or we supply liquidity to AMM exchanges like Balancer. This allows us to earn interest and generate yield for our depositors. We’re the experts so our users don’t need to be.
We haven’t yet integrated with any of the insurance or investment protocols — but we certainly plan on it. Our infrastructure is built with blockchain technology at the heart and our system is extensible — we’re ready to add assets and protocols when we feel they are ready, safe, secure, and stable. Many of these protocols are still in the experimental phase. It’s still early.
At Genesis Block we’re excited to continue to be at the frontlines of this incredible, innovative, technological revolution called DeFi.
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None of these powerful DeFi protocols will be replacing Robinhood, SoFi, or Venmo anytime soon. They never will. They aren’t meant to! We’ve discussed this before, these are low-level protocols that need killer applications, like Genesis Block.
So now that we’ve gone a little deeper down the rabbit hole and we’ve done this whirlwind tour of DeFi, the natural next question is: why?
Why does any of it matter?
Most of these financial services that DeFi offers already exist in the real world. So why does it need to be on a blockchain? Why does it need to be decentralized? What new value is unlocked? Next post, we answer these important questions.
To look at more projects in DeFi, check out DeFi Prime, DeFi Pulse, or Consensys.
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Other Ways to Consume Today's Episode:
Follow our social channels:https://genesisblock.com/follow/
Download the app. We're a digital bank that's powered by crypto:https://genesisblock.com/download
submitted by mickhagen to genesisblockhq [link] [comments]

How were the first bitcoins created?

In Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System I read:
By convention, the first transaction in a block is a special transaction that starts a new coin owned by the creator of the block
And according to Wikipedia Bitcoin:
The successful miner finding the new block is allowed by the rest of the network to reward themselves with newly created bitcoins and transaction fees. [...] To claim the reward, a special transaction called a coinbase is included with the processed payments.[7]:ch. 8 All bitcoins in existence have been created in such coinbase transactions.
As far as I understand: blocks are created once there are transactions, and in conjunctions with creating these blocks the miner gets a reward, increasing the bitcoin supply. They receive this reward by adding a coinbase transaction to the block that they mine. But before anyone had any bitcoins, there couldn't be any transactions going on. So the miners had no blocks to create (and no rewards to receive)?
What am I missing or misunderstanding? How did the bitcoin supply get started?
submitted by hejaha to BitcoinBeginners [link] [comments]

Crypto-Powered: Understanding Bitcoin, Ethereum, and DeFi

Crypto-Powered: Understanding Bitcoin, Ethereum, and DeFi
Until one understands the basics of this tech, they won’t be able to grasp or appreciate the impact it has on our digital bank, Genesis Block.
https://reddit.com/link/ho4bif/video/n0euarkifu951/player
This is the second post of Crypto-Powered — a new series that examines what it means for Genesis Block to be a digital bank that’s powered by crypto, blockchain, and decentralized protocols.
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Our previous post set the stage for this series. We discussed the state of consumer finance and how the success of today’s high-flying fintech unicorns will be short-lived as long as they’re building on legacy finance — a weak foundation that is ripe for massive disruption.
Instead, the future of consumer finance belongs to those who are deeply familiar with blockchain tech & decentralized protocols, build on it as the foundation, and know how to take it to the world. Like Genesis Block.
Today we begin our journey down the crypto rabbit hole. This post will be an important introduction for those still learning about Bitcoin, Ethereum, or DeFi (Decentralized Finance). This post (and the next few) will go into greater detail about how this technology gives Genesis Block an edge, a superpower, and an unfair advantage. Let’s dive in…
https://preview.redd.it/1ugdxoqjfu951.jpg?width=650&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=36edde1079c3cff5f6b15b8cd30e6c436626d5d8

Bitcoin: The First Cryptocurrency

There are plenty of online resources to learn about Bitcoin (Coinbase, Binance, Gemini, Naval, Alex Gladstein, Marc Andreessen, Chris Dixon). I don’t wanna spend a lot of time on that here, but let’s do a quick overview for those still getting ramped up.
Cryptocurrency is the most popular use-case of blockchain technology today. And Bitcoin was the first cryptocurrency to be invented.
Bitcoin is the most decentralized of all crypto assets today — no government, company, or third party can control or censor it.
Bitcoin has two primary features (as do most other cryptocurrencies):
  1. Send Value You can send value to anyone, anywhere in the world. Nobody can intercept, delay or stop it — not even governments or financial institutions. Unlike with traditional money transfers or bank wires, there are no layers of middlemen. This results in a process that is much more cost-efficient. Some popular use-cases include remittances and cross-border payments.
  2. Store Value With nothing but a smartphone, you can become your own bank and store your own funds. Nobody can seize your assets. The funds are digital and stored on a blockchain. Your money no longer needs to be stored at a bank, in a vault, or under your mattress. I covered a few inspiring use-cases in a previous post. They include banking the unbanked, protecting assets from government seizure, mitigating the risk of a bank run, and protection against hyperinflation (like what recently happened in Venezuela).
The fact that there are so few things one can do with Bitcoin is one of its greatest strengths.
Its design is simple, elegant, and focused. It has been 10+ years since Satoshi’s white paper and no one has been able to crack or hack the Bitcoin network. With a market cap of $170B, there is plenty of incentive to try.
https://preview.redd.it/bizndfpkfu951.png?width=800&format=png&auto=webp&s=456c53b798248e60456a65835a33c69b2fe8daf0

Public Awareness

A few negative moments in Bitcoin’s history include the collapse of Mt. Gox — which resulted in hundreds of millions of customer funds being stolen — as well as Bitcoin’s role in dark markets like Silk Road — where Bitcoin arguably found its initial userbase.
However, like most breakthrough technology, Bitcoin is neither good nor bad. It’s neutral. People can use it for good or they can use it for evil. Thankfully, it’s being used less and less for illicit activity. Criminals are starting to understand that transactions on a blockchain are public and traceable — it’s exactly the type of system they usually try to avoid. And it’s true, at this point “a lot more” crimes are actually committed with fiat than crypto.
As a result, the perception of bitcoin and cryptocurrency has been changing over the years to a more positive light.
Bitcoin has even started to enter the world of media & entertainment. It’s been mentioned in Hollywood films like Spiderman: Into the Spider-Verse and in songs from major artists like Eminem. It’s been mentioned in countless TV shows like Billions, The Simpsons, Big Bang Theory, Gray’s Anatomy, Family Guy, and more.
As covid19 has ravaged economies and central banks have been printing money, Bitcoin has caught the attention of many legendary Wall Street investors like Paul Tudor Jones, saying that Bitcoin is a great bet against inflation (reminding him of Gold in the 1970s).
Cash App already lets their 25M users buy Bitcoin. It’s rumored that PayPal and Venmo will soon let their 325M users start buying Bitcoin. Bitcoin is by far the most dominant cryptocurrency and is showing no signs of slowing down. For more than a decade it has delivered on its core use-cases — being able to send or store value.
At this point, Bitcoin has very much entered the zeitgeist of modern pop culture — at least in the West.
https://preview.redd.it/dnuwbw8mfu951.png?width=800&format=png&auto=webp&s=6f1f135e3effee4574b5167901b80ced2c972bda

Ethereum: Programmable Money

When Ethereum launched in 2015, it opened up a world of new possibilities and use-cases for crypto. With Ethereum Smart Contracts (i.e. applications), this exciting new digital money (cryptocurrency) became a lot less dumb. Developers could now build applications that go beyond the simple use-cases of “send value” & “store value.” They could program cryptocurrency to have rules, behavior, and logic to respond to different inputs. And always enforced by code. Additional reading on Ethereum from Linda Xie or Vitalik Buterin.
Because these applications are built on blockchain technology (Ethereum), they preserve many of the same characteristics as Bitcoin: no one can stop, censor or shut down these apps because they are decentralized.
One of the first major use-cases on Ethereum was the ability to mint and create your own token, your own cryptocurrency. Many companies used this as a way to fundraise from the public. This led to the 2017 ICO bubble (Initial Coin Offerings). Some tokens — and the apps/networks they powered — were fascinating and innovative. Most tokens were pointless. And many tokens were outright scams. Additional token reading from Fred Ehrsam, Balaji, and Naval.
https://reddit.com/link/ho4bif/video/b5b1jh9ofu951/player

Digital Gold Rush

Just as tokens grew in popularity in 2017–2018, so did online marketplaces where these tokens could be bought, sold, and traded. This was a fledgling asset class — the merchants selling picks, axes, and shovels were finally starting to emerge.
I had a front-row seat — both as an investor and token creator. This was the Wild West with all the frontier drama & scandal that you’d expect.
Binance — now the world’s largest crypto exchange —was launched during this time. They along with many others (especially from Asia) made it really easy for speculators, traders, and degenerate gamblers to participate in these markets. Similar to other financial markets, the goal was straightforward: buy low and sell high.
https://preview.redd.it/tytsu5jnfu951.jpg?width=600&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=fe3425b7e4a71fa953b953f0c7f6eaff6504a0d1
That period left an embarrassing stain on our industry that we’ve still been trying to recover from. It was a period rampant with market manipulation, pump-and-dumps, and scams. To some extent, the crypto industry still suffers from that today, but it’s nothing compared to what it was then.
While the potential of getting filthy rich brought a lot of fly-by-nighters and charlatans into the industry, it also brought a lot of innovators, entrepreneurs, and builders.
The launch and growth of Ethereum has been an incredible technological breakthrough. As with past tech breakthroughs, it has led to a wave of innovation, experimentation, and development. The creativity around tokens, smart contracts, and decentralized applications has been fascinating to witness. Now a few years later, the fruits of those labors are starting to be realized.

DeFi: Decentralized Finance

So as a reminder, tokens are cryptocurrencies. Cryptocurrencies can carry value. And value is a lot like money. Because tokens are natively integrated with Ethereum, it’s been natural for developers to build applications related to financial services — things like lending, borrowing, saving, investing, payments, and insurance. In the last few years, there has been a groundswell of developer momentum building in this area of financial protocols. This segment of the industry is known as DeFi (Decentralized Finance).
https://preview.redd.it/f0sjzqspfu951.png?width=461&format=png&auto=webp&s=8e0a31bf29250fc624918fbd8514b008762f379e
In Q2 of 2020, 97% of all Ethereum activity was DeFi-related. Total DeFi transaction volume has reached $11.5B. The current value locked inside DeFi protocols is approaching $2 Billion (double from a month ago). DeFi’s meteoric growth cannot be ignored.
Most of that growth can be attributed to exciting protocols like Compound, Maker, Synthetix, Balancer, Aave, dYdX, and Uniswap. These DeFi protocols and the financial services they offer are quickly becoming some of the most popular use-cases for blockchain technology today.
https://preview.redd.it/wn3phnkqfu951.png?width=800&format=png&auto=webp&s=02f56caa6b94aa59eadd6e368ef9346ba10c7611
This impressive growth in DeFi certainly hasn’t come without growing pains. Unlike with Bitcoin, there are near-infinite applications one can develop on Ethereum. Sometimes bugs (or typos) can slip through code reviews, testing, and audits — resulting in loss of funds.
Our next post will go much deeper on DeFi.

Wrap Up

I know that for the hardcore crypto people, what we covered today is nothing new. But for those who are still getting up to speed, welcome! I hope this was helpful and that it fuels your interest to learn more.
Until you understand the basics of this technology, you won’t be able to fully appreciate the impact that it has on our new digital bank, Genesis Block. You won’t be able to understand the implications, how it relates, or how it helps.
After today’s post, some of you probably have a lot more questions. What are specific examples or use-cases of DeFi? Why does it need to be on a blockchain? What benefits does it bring to Genesis Block and our users?
In upcoming posts, we answer these questions. Today’s post was just Level 1. It set the foundation for where we’re headed next: even deeper down the crypto rabbit hole.
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Other Ways to Consume Today's Episode:
We have a lot more content coming. Be sure to follow our channels: https://genesisblock.com/follow/
Have you already downloaded the app? We're Genesis Block, a new digital bank that's powered by crypto & decentralized protocols. The app is live in the App Store (iOS & Android). Get the link to download at https://genesisblock.com/download
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Spreading Crypto: In Search of the Killer Application

Spreading Crypto: In Search of the Killer Application
This is the second post of our Spreading Crypto series where we take a deep dive into what it’ll take to help this technology reach broader adoption.
Mick exploring the state of apps in crypto
Our previous post explored the history of protocols and how they only become widely adopted when a compelling application makes them more accessible and easier to use.
Crypto will be no different. Blockchain technology today is mostly all low-level protocols. As with the numerous protocols that came before, these new, decentralized protocols need killer applications.
So, how’s that going? Where is crypto’s killer application? What’s the state of application development within our industry? Today we’ll try to answer those questions. We’ll also take a close look at decentralized applications — as that’s where a lot of the developer energy and focus currently is. Let’s dive in.

Popular Crypto Applications

The most popular crypto applications today are exchanges like Coinbase and Binance — each with tens of millions of users. Other popular crypto exchanges include Kraken, Bitstamp, Gemini, and Bitfinex. In recent years, new derivatives platforms have emerged like FTX and Deribit.
The most popular crypto applications today are primarily focused on trading, speculation, and finance. This class of applications dwarfs all other types of applications in terms of users and growth. That’s either a sign of strong product/market fit, or we just haven’t yet discovered other good use-cases. Or a mix of both.
https://preview.redd.it/8rnxghfrdh551.png?width=1600&format=png&auto=webp&s=b3df8c3d87410f6b84432df79528ee4324daf04d
Beyond the fact that the most popular crypto applications are all used for speculation, another common thread is that they are all centralized.
A centralized application means that ultimate power and control rests with a centralized party (the company who built it). For example, if Coinbase or Binance wants to block you from withdrawing your funds for whatever reason (maybe for suspicious activity or fraud), they can do that. They have control of their servers so they have control of your funds.
Most popular applications that we all use daily are centralized (Netflix, Facebook, Youtube, etc). That’s the standard for modern, world-class applications today.

Decentralized Applications

Even though the most popular crypto applications are all centralized, most of the developer energy and focus in our industry is with decentralized applications (dApps) and non-custodial products.
These are products where only the user can touch or move funds. Not even the company or developer who built the application can access or control or stop funds from being moved. Only the user has control.
These applications allow users to truly become their own bank and have absolute control of their money.
They also allow users to perform blockchain transactions and interact directly with decentralized protocols. Some of the most popular non-custodial products include Ledger, MetaMask, and MyCrypto (#ProudInvestor).
While the benefits of this type of application are obvious (user has full control of their funds), it comes with a lot of tradeoffs. We will cover that later in this post.
https://preview.redd.it/rs6tj7vsdh551.png?width=1600&format=png&auto=webp&s=86fe5bca3a9466abab5e78c9873ce3b57609f2d2

Libertarianism + Crypto

If the most popular applications tend to be centralized (inside and out of crypto), why is so much of our community focused on building decentralized applications (dApps)? For the casual observer, that’s a reasonable, valid question.
“Not your keys, not your coins.”
This meme is endlessly repeated among longtime crypto hodlers. If you’re not in complete control of your crypto (i.e. using non-custodial wallets or dApps), then it’s not really your crypto.
Engrained in the early culture of Bitcoin has always been a strong distrust for centralized authority and power — including the too-big-to-fail government-backed financial system. In the midst of the Financial Crisis, Satoshi Nakamoto included this headline in Bitcoin’s genesis block: “Chancellor on brink of second bailout for banks.” There has always been a close connection between libertarianism & cryptocurrency.
So it’s no surprise that much of the crypto developer community is spending their time building applications that are non-custodial or decentralized. It’s part of the DNA, the soul, the essence of our community.
https://preview.redd.it/fy33zhkvdh551.png?width=1600&format=png&auto=webp&s=386c741f13e9119ecfcfffe1c781d09ce58704ed

Personal Experience

When I was at Mainframe, we built Mainframe OS — a platform that developers use to build and launch decentralized applications (dApps). I’m deeply familiar with what’s possible and what’s not in the world of dApps. I have the battle scars and gray hair to prove it. We’ve hosted panels around the various challenges. We’ve even produced videos poking fun at how complicated it is for end-users to interact with.
After having spent three years in the trenches of this non-custodial world, I no longer believe that decentralized applications are capable of bringing crypto to the masses.
While I totally understand and appreciate the ethos of self-sovereignty, independence, and liberty… I think it’s a terrible mistake that as a community we are spending most of our time in this area of application development. Decentralized applications will not take crypto to the masses.
Mainframe OS

Overwhelming Friction

The user friction that comes with decentralized applications is just too overwhelming. Let’s go through a few of the bigger points:
  1. Knowledge & Education: Most non-custodial products do not abstract away any of the blockchain complexity. In fact, they often expose more of it because the most loyal users are crypto nerds. Imagine how a normie n00b feels when she starts seeing words like seed phrases, public & private keys, gas limits, transaction fees, blockchain explorers, hex addresses, and confirmation times. There is a lot for a user to learn and become educated on. That’s friction. The learning curve on this is just too damn high.
  2. User Experience: It is currently impossible to create a smooth and performant user experience in non-custodial wallets or decentralized applications. Any interaction that requires a blockchain transaction will feel sluggish and slow. We built a messaging app on Ethereum and presented it at DevCon3 in Cancun. The technical constraints of blockchain technology were crushing to the user experience. We simply couldn’t create the real-time, modern messaging experience that users have come to expect from similar apps like Slack or WhatsApp. Until blockchains are closer in speed to web servers (which will be difficult given their decentralized nature), dApps will never be able to create the smooth user experience that the masses expect.
  3. Loss of Funds Risk: There is no “Forgot Password” functionality when storing your own crypto in a non-custodial wallet. There is no customer support agent you can ping. There is no company behind it that can make you whole if you make a mistake and lose your money. You are on your own. One wrong move and your money is all gone. If you lose your private key, there is no way to recover your funds. This just isn’t the type of customer support experience people want or are used to.
Onyx Messaging App

What Our Industry Has Wrong

Decentralized applications will always have a place in the market — especially among the most hardcore crypto people and parts of the world where these tools are essential. I’m personally an active user of many non-custodial products. I’m a blockchain early-adopter, I like to hold my own money, and I’m very forgiving of suboptimal UX.
However, I’m not afraid to say the poop stinks. Decentralized applications simply cannot produce the type of product experience that mainstream consumers expect.
If the goal is growth and adoption, as a community I believe we’re barking up the wrong tree. We are trying to make fetch happen. It isn’t gonna happen. Our Netscape Moment is unlikely to arrive as long as we’re focused on decentralized applications.
\"Mean Girls\" movie
There’s a reason why the most popular consumer applications are centralized (Spotify, Amazon, Instagram, etc). There’s a reason why the most popular crypto applications are centralized (Coinbase, Binance, etc).
The frameworks, tooling, infrastructure, and services to support these modern, centralized applications are mature and well-established. It’s easier to build apps that are fast & performant. It’s easier to launch apps that are convenient and on all form-factors (especially mobile). It’s easier to distribute and promote via all the major app store channels (iOS/Android). It’s easier to patch, update, and upgrade. It’s easier to experiment and iterate.
It’s easier to design, build, and launch a world-class application when it is centralized! It is why we’ve chosen this path for Genesis Block.
---
Other Ways to Consume This Content:
We have a lot more content coming. Be sure to follow our channels: https://genesisblock.com/follow/
Have you already downloaded the app? We're Genesis Block, a new digital bank that's powered by crypto & decentralized protocols. The app is live in the App Store (iOS & Android). Get the link to download at https://genesisblock.com/download
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A Brief History of BitCoin

A Brief History of BitCoin


What is Bitcoin? | How It Work?

A Brief History of BitCoin

The virtual currency was intended to develop peer-to-peer transactions; it doesn’t need a go-between, the exchange of private information, or transaction fees.

What is Bitcoin?

Bitcoin is virtual money or cryptocurrency, that’s measured by a decentralized network of operators and isn’t straight subject to the impulses of central banking decisions or national governments. There are hundreds of cryptocurrencies in lively use today, Bitcoin is through far the most general and widely used – the nearby cryptocurrency equal to traditional, state-minted coins.

How Bitcoin Works

Bitcoin is a cryptocurrency since it’s supported by source code that customs highly composite procedures to prevent illegal duplication or creation of Bitcoin elements. The code’s fundamental principles, known as cryptography, are based on innovative scientific and computer engineering values. It’s practically impossible to stop Bitcoin’s source code and operate the currency’s supply.
Though it was headed by other virtual coins, Bitcoin is identified as the first modern cryptocurrency. That’s since Bitcoin is the initial to blend some key structures shared by most after created cryptocurrencies.

User Anonymity

Intense privacy safeties are seared into Bitcoin’s source code. The method is intended to openly record Bitcoin dealings and other related data without revealing the individuality of the groups involved. As a substitute, Bitcoin users are recognized by public keys or numerical codes that find them to additional users, and occasionally pseudonymous handles or usernames.

Bitcoin Exchanges

Bitcoin exchanges permit users to change Bitcoin parts for authorization currencies, such as the U.S. dollar and euro, at flexible exchange charges. Many Bitcoin relations also exchange Bitcoin components for other cryptocurrencies, with less popular substitutes that can’t straight be replaced for fiat coins. Most Bitcoin exchanges take a cut, naturally less than 1%, of each deal’s value.
Bitcoin exchanges certify that the Bitcoin market leftovers liquid, set their value qualified to traditional money – and allowing pouches to profit from the assumption on variations in that value.

BlockChain

Bitcoin’s blockchain is dynamic to its function. The blockchain is a public, spread record of all prior Bitcoin communications, which are kept in collections known as blocks. Each node of Bitcoin’s network – the server farms and positions, run by individuals or sets known as miners, whose hard work to produce new Bitcoin elements product in the recording and verification of Bitcoin dealings, and the episodic creation of new blocks – holds an identical record of Bitcoin’s blockchain.
Private Keys
Every Bitcoin handler has at smallest one private key, which is an entire number between 1 and 78 numbers in length. Separate users can have many unnamed handles, each with its private key. Private keys approve their owners’ characters and permit them to occupy or receive Bitcoin. Without them, handlers can’t whole transactions – they can’t access their properties until they improve the matching key. When a key is misplaced for good, the matching holdings change into a sort of everlasting limbo and can’t be improved.

Wallets

Real Bitcoin units are kept in “wallets” – secure cloud storing locations with superior information approving their owners (Bitcoin users) as the protectors of the Bitcoin units controlled within. However wallets like Coinbase, in theory, defend against the stealing of Bitcoin elements that aren’t currently being used, they’re exposed to hacking – mainly public wallets used by Bitcoin connections, online marketplaces, and specific websites that occur exclusively to store Bitcoin wallets known as “wallet services.”
Miners
Miners play an important role in the Bitcoin environment. As guards of the blockchain, they save the entire Bitcoin community truthful and indirectly provide the currency’s value. Miners are entities or cooperative governments with access to influential computers, often kept at remote, secretly owned “farms.” They do incredibly complex scientific tasks to new Bitcoin, which they then keep or change for fiat currency.

Modes of Bitcoin

  • Theft Private Keys.
  • Misusing Wallet Vulnerabilities
  • Functioning Fraudulent Exchanges and Savings Funds.
  • Attacking Authentic Exchanges Directly.
  • Aggressive Dark Web Marketplaces.

How to Get Bitcoin

There are three key ways people get Bitcoins.
  • You can purchase Bitcoins using ‘real’ money.
  • You can retail things and let persons pay with Bitcoins.
  • Developed using a computer.

Advantages of Using Bitcoin

  • Better Fluidity Comparative to Other currencies
  • Increasing the payment method
  • Worldwide Transactions Easier Than Even Currencies
  • Usually Lower Transaction Charges
  • Secrecy and Privacy Relative to Old Currencies
  • Individuality from Politically aware Agents and Creators
  • In-built Shortage

Disadvantages of Using Bitcoin

  • Exposure to Bitcoin-specific Tricks and Fraud
  • Black Market Motion May Damage Repute and Usefulness
  • Vulnerable to High Price Instability
  • No Chargebacks or Repayments
  • Possible to Be Replaced by Greater Cryptocurrency
  • Environmental Ills of Bitcoin Mining
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The Blackmail Email Scam (part 4)

THIS THREAD IS NOW ARCHIVED, THE LATEST THREAD CAN BE FOUND HERE: https://old.reddit.com/Scams/comments/g8jqnthe_blackmail_email_scam_part_5/

TEXT, PHONE CALL, AND PHYSICAL MAIL VARIANTS ARE COVERED IN THE LATEST THREAD.

IF YOU RECEIVE A BLACKMAIL EMAIL, PLEASE REDACT THE PERSONAL INFORMATION AND POST IT AS A COMMENT ON THIS THREAD SO THAT OTHERS WHO RECEIVE THE SAME EMAIL CAN FIND IT THROUGH GOOGLE.

FIRST THREAD: https://www.reddit.com/Scams/comments/8gsjba/the_blackmail_email_scam/

SECOND THREAD: https://www.reddit.com/Scams/comments/9srjen/the_blackmail_email_scam_part_2/###

THIRD THREAD: https://old.reddit.com/Scams/comments/biv65o/the_blackmail_email_scam_part_3/

There have been many recent posts about the blackmail email scam, so I have written this post and will keep it stickied until the posts about the scam die down. If you are reading this because you have received one of these emails and you are worried, you can stop worrying. The blackmail email scam is a spam campaign that is sent out to thousands of addresses at a time. In al cases, the threats are lies and you do not have anything to worry about. In many cases, the emails will contain information about you such as your name, part or all of your phone number, and your password. The emails may also look like they were sent from your own email address. The data is gathered from data breaches, and if the email looks like it came from your account that is due to email spoofing. You can use the service Have I Been Pwned? to see if you are in any publicly known data breaches. If you receive an email that contains a password that you currently use, you should immediately change that. Current recommended password guidelines say that you should use a different, complex password for every account. You can generate and save passwords using a password manager for convenience. You should also be using two factor authentication using an app like Google Authenticator instead of receiving codes through SMS.
Here are some news articles about this scam. Here is a story from Brian Krebs, and here is a story from the New York Times.
Below are a few examples, but if you receive an email that is similar but not the same as the examples you see, that does not matter and does not mean that the email is real. The spammers constantly switch up their templates in order to bypass spam filters, so it's normal to receive an email that hasn't yet been posted online.
Hey there
So I am the hacker who cracked your email address and device a few weeks back.
You typed in your pwd on one of the sites you visited, and I intercepted that.
Here is your password from (redacted) upon time of compromise: (redacted)
Obviously you can can change it, or even already changed it.
However it won't really matter, my malware modified it every time.
Do not really try to contact me personally or find me.
Via your email, I uploaded harmful code to your Operation System.
I saved your entire contacts together with buddies, fellow workers, loved ones along with a entire history of visits to the World wide web resources.
Also I set up a Virus on your system.
You aren't my only target, I generally lock computers and ask for a ransom.
But I was hit by the web pages of romantic material that you normally stop by.
I am in shock of your own fantasies! I have never ever noticed anything at all like this!
Consequently, when you had enjoyment on piquant web-sites (you know what I am talking about!) I made screenshot with utilizing my program from your camera of yours device.
There after, I put together them to the content of the currently viewed site.
There will certainly be giggling when I send these pics to your connections!
Nevertheless I am certain you do not need this.
Therefore, I expect to have payment from you for my silence.
I feel $859 is an satisfactory price for this!
Pay with Bitcoin.
My Bitcoin wallet is xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
If you do not really understand how to do this - submit in to Google 'how to transfer money to the bitcoin wallet'. It is easy.
Immediately after getting the given amount, all your files will be right away destroyed automatically. My computer virus will also get rid of itself through your operating-system.
My Trojan viruses have auto alert, so I know when this specific e mail is read.
I give you 2 days (48 hours) to make a payment.
If this does not occur - just about all your associates will get outrageous pictures from your darkish secret life and your system will be blocked as well after two days.
Do not end up being foolish!
Police or buddies won't support you for sure ...
P.S I can provide you with recommendation for the future. Do not type in your security passwords on risky web pages.
I wish for your wisdom.
Bon voyage.
Your computer device was attacked by the malicious app . Whats the trouble? I placed my malicious agent on a erotica portal, you clicked on this data and promptly adjusted the malware to your computer . The hostile program made your selfie-camera shooting and I enjoy the videotape with you dash your doodle. In next 5 hours this hostile program copied all your contacts. Right now, I receive your all your contact information and video with you masturbating, and now if you wish me to destroy all the data affect payment 350 $USD in BTC digital currency. Other way I want forward that this record to all your contacts . I forward you my Bitcoin wallet - XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX You possess 27 hours after reading. In a case if I possess transaction I am going to undo that this record once for all. I beg pardon for my mistakes- I live in China . P.S. this postal address, I have thieved it
Good day,
If you had been more careful while caressing yourself, I wouldn't worry you. I don't think that playing with yourself is very bad, but when all your colleagues, relatives and friends get a video recording of it - it is definitely bad for you.
I placed malicious software on a website for adults (with porn) which was visited by you. When the target taps on a play button, your device starts recording the screen and all cameras on your device begin to work.
Moreover, my program allows a remote desktop connection with keylogger function from the device, so I could collect all contacts from your e-mail, messengers and other social networks. I'm writing on this e-mail cuz it's your working address, so you must check it.
I suppose that three hundred twenty usd is good enough for this little misstep. I made a split screen video (recorded from your screen (u have interesting tastes ) and camera ooooooh... its awful AF)
So it's your choice. If you want me to erase this compromising evidence, use my Bitcoin wallet address: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX You have one day after opening my message; I put a special tracking pixel in it, so when you will open it I will see. If you want me to show you the proofs, reply to this message and I will send my creation to five contacts that I got from your contacts.
P.S. You can try to complain to the police, but I don't think that they can help, the investigation will last for 5 month- I'm from Ukraine - so I dgf lmao
Hey there
So I am the hacker who cracked your email address and device a few weeks back.
You typed in your pwd on one of the sites you visited, and I intercepted that.
Here is your password from (redacted) upon time of compromise: (redacted)
Obviously you can can change it, or even already changed it.
However it won't really matter, my malware modified it every time.
Do not really try to contact me personally or find me.
Via your email, I uploaded harmful code to your Operation System.
I saved your entire contacts together with buddies, fellow workers, loved ones along with a entire history of visits to the World wide web resources.
Also I set up a Virus on your system.
You aren't my only target, I generally lock computers and ask for a ransom.
But I was hit by the web pages of romantic material that you normally stop by.
I am in shock of your own fantasies! I have never ever noticed anything at all like this!
Consequently, when you had enjoyment on piquant web-sites (you know what I am talking about!) I made screenshot with utilizing my program from your camera of yours device.
There after, I put together them to the content of the currently viewed site.
There will certainly be giggling when I send these pics to your connections!
Nevertheless I am certain you do not need this.
Therefore, I expect to have payment from you for my silence.
I feel $859 is an satisfactory price for this!
Pay with Bitcoin.
My Bitcoin wallet is xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
If you do not really understand how to do this - submit in to Google 'how to transfer money to the bitcoin wallet'. It is easy.
Immediately after getting the given amount, all your files will be right away destroyed automatically. My computer virus will also get rid of itself through your operating-system.
My Trojan viruses have auto alert, so I know when this specific e mail is read.
I give you 2 days (48 hours) to make a payment.
If this does not occur - just about all your associates will get outrageous pictures from your darkish secret life and your system will be blocked as well after two days.
Do not end up being foolish!
Police or buddies won't support you for sure ...
P.S I can provide you with recommendation for the future. Do not type in your security passwords on risky web pages.
I wish for your wisdom.
Bon voyage.
I Have YOUR code. I rule phone xxxx
I SENT this newsletter from YOUR ACCOUNT.
I look your device.
I am in daze of your sex act fantasies!
I made backup your contacts and files. I made screenshots from your digital camera of yours device.
I want 888 $ to my (Bitcoin
My )Bitcoin currency
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
If YOU don't transaction )Bitcoin. I share my quake of your golden age of porn fantasies with your contacts!
If you do not know how to do this - enter into Google/
=how to transfer money to a Bitcoin& wallet-
Time 30 hours.
This excellent post as Subway & Dairy Queen.
Hello!
I'm a programmer who cracked your email account and device about half year ago. You entered a password on one of the insecure site you visited, and I catched it.
Of course you can will change your password, or already made it. But it doesn't matter, my rat software update it every time.
Please don't try to contact me or find me, it is impossible, since I sent you an email from your email account.
Through your e-mail, I uploaded malicious code to your Operation System. I saved all of your contacts with friends, colleagues, relatives and a complete history of visits to the Internet resources. Also I installed a rat software on your device and long tome spying for you.
You are not my only victim, I usually lock devices and ask for a ransom. But I was struck by the sites of intimate content that you very often visit.
I am in shock of your reach fantasies! Wow! I've never seen anything like this! I did not even know that SUCH content could be so exciting!
So, when you had fun on intime sites (you know what I mean!) I made screenshot with using my program from your camera of yours device. After that, I jointed them to the content of the currently viewed site.
Will be funny when I send these photos to your contacts! And if your relatives see it? BUT I'm sure you don't want it. I definitely would not want to ...
I will not do this if you pay me a little amount. I think $877 is a nice price for it!
I accept only Bitcoins. My BTC wallet: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
If you have difficulty with this - Ask Google "how to make a payment on a bitcoin wallet". It's easy. After receiving the above amount, all your data will be immediately removed automatically. My virus will also will be destroy itself from your operating system.
My Trojan have auto alert, after this email is looked, I will be know it!
You have 2 days (48 hours) for make a payment. If this does not happen - all your contacts will get crazy shots with your dirty life! And so that you do not obstruct me, your device will be locked (also after 48 hours)
Do not take this frivolously! This is the last warning! Various security services or antiviruses won't help you for sure (I have already collected all your data).
Here are the recommendations of a professional: Antiviruses do not help against modern malicious code. Just do not enter your passwords on unsafe sites!
I hope you will be prudent. Bye.
Same as before but they increased the amount
I got an order from someone to kill you and your family
but I am far from your house
if you still love your family, I ask you to transfer 0.1 BTC to me.
If you report this email, I will immediately kill your family.
FORWARD THIS MAIL TO WHOEVER IS IMPORTANT IN YOUR COMPANY AND CAN MAKE DECISION!
We Hacked network. We Caught Communications. We Backuped DATA And DOCUMENTS. We send this mail to you in YOUR account.
After analyzing documents. We found Illegal activity - HIDING TAXES.
That we want?
I want two (2) Bitcoin To wallet Bitcoin. 1Dz7DbQmE7SNm3C5mb9syPcctgZECcCEbL
That we do if you don't pay bitcoin?
We send these Documents and Proofs to your Tax Department.
And in this time Your network will be DDoS. Read that in this link https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Denial-of-service\_attack
We are locking your operation system. Our friends, WannaCry, ready start and waiting command. Read that in this link https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WannaCry\_ransomware\_attack
This is our guarantee, that you don't clean evidence and building a protection policy.
If you don't pay by in 7 days, attack will start.
Attack including.
1.DDOS 2.Locking operation system 3.Sending all documents in Tax Departament
Yours service going down permanently and price to stop will increase to Four (4) BTC, Price will go up one (1) BTC for every day of the attack.
This is not a joke.
Our attacks are extremely powerful - sometimes over 1 Tbps per second. And we pass CloudFlare and others remote protections! So, no cheap protection will help.
Prevent this problem all with just Two (2) BTC Pay to our wallet Bitcoin. 1Dz7DbQmE7SNm3C5mb9syPcctgZECcCEbL
AND YOU WILL NEVER AGAIN HEAR FROM US!
If you read, hear fake-experts and assure yourself that this is not true. Remember that they are not responsible and your life don't important him. Their business is to speak and make money. Your business to do and make money and stay freedom.
All mistakes in text we do specily.
Bitcoin is anonymous, nobody will ever know you cooperated.
Time started after open this mail. To track the reading of a message and the actions in it, I use the facebook pixel. Read that in this link
Hello!
I am a hacker who has access to your operating system.
I also have full access to your account.
I've been watching you for a few months now.
The fact is that you were infected with malware through an adult site that you visited.
If you are not familiar with this, I will explain.
Trojan Virus gives me full access and control over a computer or other device.
This means that I can see everything on your screen, turn on the camera and microphone, but you do not know about it.
I also have access to all your contacts and all your correspondence.
Why your antivirus did not detect malware?
Answer: My malware uses the driver, I update its signatures every 4 hours so that your antivirus is silent.
I made a video showing how you satisfy yourself in the left half of the screen, and in the right half you see the video that you watched.
With one click of the mouse, I can send this video to all your emails and contacts on social networks.
I can also post access to all your e-mail correspondence and messengers that you use.
If you want to prevent this,
transfer the amount of $500 to my bitcoin address (if you do not know how to do this, write to Google: "Buy Bitcoin").
My bitcoin address (BTC Wallet) is: x
After receiving the payment, I will delete the video and you will never hear me again.
I give you 50 hours (more than 2 days) to pay.
I have a notice reading this letter, and the timer will work when you see this letter.
Filing a complaint somewhere does not make sense because this email cannot be tracked like my bitcoin address.
I do not make any mistakes.
If I find that you have shared this message with someone else, the video will be immediately distributed.
Best regards.
Hey, I know your password is:
Your computer was infected with my malware, RAT (Remote Administration Tool), your browser wasn't updated / patched, in such case it's enough to just visit some website where my iframe is placed to get automatically infected, if you want to find out more - Google: "Drive-by exploit".
My malware gave me full access and control over your computer, meaning, I got access to all your accounts (see password above) and I can see everything on your screen, turn on your camera or microphone and you won't even notice about it.
I collected all your private data and I was spying on you, I RECORDED (through your webcam) embarrassing moments of you, you know what I mean!
After that I removed my malware to not leave any traces.
I can publish all your private data everywhere and I can send the videos to all your contacts, post it on social network, publish it on the whole web, including the darknet, where the sick people are!
Only you can prevent me from doing this and only I can help you out in this situation.
Transfer exactly 1200$ with the current bitcoin (BTC) price to my bitcoin address.
It's a very good offer, compared to all that horrible shit that will happen if I publish everything!
You can easily buy bitcoin here: www.paxful.com , www.coingate.com , www.coinbase.com , or check for bitcoin ATM near you, or Google for other exchanger. You can send the bitcoin directly to my address, or create your own wallet first here: www.login.blockchain.com/en/#/signup/ , then receive and send to mine.
My bitcoin address is:
Copy and paste my address, it's (cAsE-sEnSEtiVE)
I give you 3 days time to transfer the bitcoin!
As I got access to this email account, I will know if this email has already been read. If you get this email multiple times, it's to make sure you read it and after payment you can ignore it. After receiving the payment, I will remove everything and you can life your live in peace like before.
Next time update your browser before browsing the web!
НЕLLО!
I’m going to cut to thе chӓsе.I know ӓbout thе sеcrеt you ӓrе kееping from your wifе.Morе importӓntly,I hӓvе еvidеncе of whӓt you hӓvе bееn hiding.I won’t go into thе spеcifics hеrе in cӓsе your wifе intеrcеpts this,but you know whӓt I ӓm tӓlking ӓbout.
You don’t know mе pеrsonӓlly ӓnd nobody hirеd mе to look into you.Nor did I go out looking to burn you.It’s just your bӓd luck thӓt I stumblеd ӓcross your misӓdvеnturеs whilе.I thеn put in morе timе thӓn I probӓbly should hӓvе looking into your lifе.Frӓnkly,I ӓm rеӓdy to forgеt ӓll ӓbout you ӓnd lеt you gеt on with your lifе.And I ӓm going to givе you two options thӓt will ӓccomplish thӓt vеry thing.Thosе two options ӓrе to еithеr ignorе this lеttеr,or simply pӓy mе $822.Lеt’s еxӓminе thosе two options in morе dеtӓil.
Option 1 is to ignorе this lеttеr.Lеt mе tеll you whӓt will hӓppеn if you chosе this pӓth.I will tӓkе this еvidеncе ӓnd sеnd it to your wifе. And ӓs insurӓncе ӓgӓinst you intеrcеpting it bеforе your wifе gеts it,I will ӓlso sеnd copiеs to hеr friеnds ӓnd fӓmily.So,Evеn if you dеcidе to comе clеӓn with your wifе,it won’t protеct hеr from thе humiliӓtion shе will fееl whеn hеr friеnds ӓnd fӓmily find out your sordid dеtӓils from mе.
Option 2 is to pӓy mе $822.Wе’ll cӓll this my ‘confidеntiӓlity fее.’Now lеt mе tеll you whӓt hӓppеns if you choosе this pӓth.Your sеcrеt rеmӓins your sеcrеt.You go on with your lifе ӓs though nonе of this еvеr hӓppеnеd.Though you mӓy wӓnt to do ӓ bеttеr job ӓt kееping your misdееds sеcrеt in thе futurе.
At this point you mӓy bе thinking,‘I’ll just go to thе cops.’Which is why I hӓvе tӓkеn stеps to еnsurе this lеttеr cӓnnot bе trӓcеd bӓck to mе.So thӓt won’t hеlp,ӓnd it won’t stop thе еvidеncе from dеstroying your lifе.I’m not looking to brеӓk your bӓnk.I just wӓnt to bе compеnsӓtеd for thе timе I put into invеstigӓting you. $822 will closе thе books on thӓt.
Lеt’s ӓssumе you hӓvе dеcidеd to mӓkе ӓll this go ӓwӓy ӓnd pӓy mе thе confidеntiӓlity fее.In kееping with my strӓtеgy to not go to jӓil,wе will not mееt in pеrson ӓnd thеrе will bе no physicӓl еxchӓngе of cӓsh.You will pӓy mе ӓnonymously using bitcoin.If you wӓnt to kееp your sеcrеt thеn sеnd $822 in bitcoin to thе Rеcеiving Bitcoin Addrеss listеd bеlow.Pӓymеnt must bе rеcеivеd within 1 dӓys of thе post.
You should mӓkе ӓ trӓnsӓction of using bitcoins (cryptocurrеnsy): x
[Bitcoin dеtӓils]
Tеll no onе whӓt you will bе using thе bitcoin for or thеy mӓy not givе it to you.Thе procеdurе to obtӓin bitcoin cӓn tӓkе ӓ dӓy or two so do not put it off.Agӓin pӓymеnt must bе rеcеivеd within 1 dӓys of this lеttеr’s post mӓrkеd dӓtе.If I don’t rеcеivе thе bitcoin by thе dеӓdlinе,I will go ӓhеӓd ӓnd rеlеӓsе thе еvidеncе to еvеryonе.If you go thӓt routе,thеn thе lеӓst you could do is tеll your wifе so shе cӓn comе up with ӓn еxcusе to prеpӓrе hеr friеnds ӓnd fӓmily bеforе thеy find out.Thе clock is ticking.
And here are some common keywords used in the email so that this thread can be found by people Googling the email:
"Marlware, international hacker group, No‌ p‌erso‌n has co‌mp‌ensat‌ed, very o‌wn vid‌eo‌ cli‌p, software on the adult, porno sitio, one of your pass word, .br, specific pixel, sexual content web portal, a malware on the adult, a malware on the, double-screen, is a reasonable price tag for our little secret, you have a good taste lmao, I placed a malware on the adult vids, your browser began operating as a RDP, had been abusing yourself in front of computer display, you are one of those people that downloaded the malicious, I made a split-screen video, While you were watching the video, your web browser acted as, malware on the porn website and guess what, an unique pixel, you jerked off while watching an online video, When you pressed the play button the virus begins saving all the things thru, ja.scr, My malicious soft started your front cam, and also send the video link to all of yourfriends, I infected your gadget with a malware and now, AnywaysI downloaded all contacts, my program quickly got into your system, To a time where you jerk off watching","For the present moment I have at my disposal all, When you arouse sexually watching porno, In such a way all needed compromising material and contact, All information to yours SNSs user accounts, You watched sexual content portal and toss","Hello! WannaCry is back! All your, in front of the screen browsing adult stuff, As you flog the dummy watching, U are going to be offered 5 days after checking this notice, RAT 68006, the damnific malware, pastime and entertainment there, not my single victim, beat the dummy, buff the muffin, choke a chicken, front camera capturing video, with you frigging, with you chaturbating, with you masturbating, web digicam, U are going to have 5 dayss, i utilize just hacked wi, pressured this trojan to, glue a pair of videos, glue two videos, the RAT, if you want me to destroy this whole video, downloaded all contacts from your computer, your list of contacts or relatives will, I made a video that shows how you masturbate, hacked you through a virus in an ad on a porn website, my illiteracy, nоt mind on my illiterаcy, I рilfered all рrivy bаckground, videоtaре with yоur masturbаtion, my delеtеrious soft, cаmеra shооt the videоtaрe, you sеlf-аbusing, Differently I will send the video to all your colleagues and friends, your front-camera made the videotape with you self-abusing, RAT 98390 malware, the minute you went to one adult page, information to contact info I discovered on your devices and remember there is a lot of these, not including Double VPN As a result, I forced my malware to hook up to a mic, web camera and catch the video from it, poisoned a number of adult sites, video clip to fit on a single tv screen, This letter has invisible monitoring program inside and i will be aware of when you are going to check, doing ur stuff and a clip u jerked to, the investigation will last, I uploaded our malicious program on your device, furthermore malware saved exactly the video you chose, its a record with your wanking, friends will see u taking proper care of yourself, Your system is controlled by the malicious program, If you were more careful while playing with yourself, that whacking off to adult web-sites is, adult website which was poisoned with my malware, nor i think that jerking off to porn sites is really a gross thing, so I dgf lmao, proof just reply to this email with, if you want me to destroy all this compromising evidence, will send your video to 5 contacts, amount in Usd that can cope with this scenario, You are welcome to contact your local authorities, If you want proof, reply with, i pride myself in being apart of an internet group, so i dgf, I take good care of my being anonymous, information related to the RAT virus, been able get in to all ur units, to all of your contacts including, search engines like goo, case sensitive, so copy,, and at this moment I, It is a non-nego, don't waste my perso, thi s mes, back while visiting, showe ring, what should you do ?, porno webpage, this embarrassing situation, navigated to the page, bare-assed, on well-known websites and publications, I got an order from someone to kill you and your family, immediately kill your family, is an explosive device, My mercenary is, explosive device detonates, triggered your webcam, piquant websites, my exploit downloaded, replenish btc wallet, i‌nstanta‌neo‌usly ‌erase, actua‌l r‌eco‌rded ma‌t‌eri‌al, n‌egl‌ect this ‌ema‌i‌l, my RAT trojan, video you jerked, I used keylogger, your disk dump, malware intercepts, installed a malware, remo‌v‌e yo‌ur vi‌deo‌ fo‌o‌ta‌ge, RAT onto your computer, greasy stimulating actions, excentric preferrables, porn web-page, to your Tax Department, network will be DDoS, friends, WannaCry, building a protection policy, in Tax Departament, Yours service going, we pass CloudFlare, hear fake-experts, backuped phone, -1663, of your joys, digits your phone, (porno), BIG pervert, both files and scale, naughty video clips, Soy un hacker, I installed spyware, n website with teen, malware on the porn website, very own recorded material""Marlware, international hacker group, No‌ p‌erso‌n has co‌mp‌ensat‌ed, very o‌wn vid‌eo‌ cli‌p, software on the adult, porno sitio, one of your pass word, specific pixel, sexual content web portal, a malware on the adult, a malware on the, double-screen, is a reasonable price tag for our little secret, you have a good taste lmao, I placed a malware on the adult vids, your browser began operating as a RDP, had been abusing yourself in front of computer display, you are one of those people that downloaded the malicious, I made a split-screen video, While you were watching the video, your web browser acted as, malware on the porn website and guess what, an unique pixel, you jerked off while watching an online video, When you pressed the play button the virus begins saving all the things thru, ja.scr, My malicious soft started your front cam, and also send the video link to all of yourfriends, I infected your gadget with a malware and now, AnywaysI downloaded all contacts, my program quickly got into your system, To a time where you jerk off watching","For the present moment I have at my disposal all, When you arouse sexually watching porno, In such a way all needed compromising material and contact, All information to yours SNSs user accounts, You watched sexual content portal and toss","Hello! WannaCry is back! All your, in front of the screen browsing adult stuff, As you flog the dummy watching, U are going to be offered 5 days after checking this notice, RAT 68006, the damnific malware, pastime and entertainment there, not my single victim, beat the dummy, buff the muffin, choke a chicken, front camera capturing video, with you frigging, with you chaturbating, with you masturbating, web digicam, U are going to have 5 dayss, i utilize just hacked wi, pressured this trojan to, glue a pair of videos, glue two videos, the RAT, if you want me to destroy this whole video, downloaded all contacts from your computer, your list of contacts or relatives will, I made a video that shows how you masturbate, hacked you through a virus in an ad on a porn website, my illiteracy, nоt mind on my illiterаcy, I рilfered all рrivy bаckground, videоtaре with yоur masturbаtion, my delеtеrious soft, cаmеra shооt the videоtaрe, you sеlf-аbusing, Differently I will send the video to all your colleagues and friends, your front-camera made the videotape with you self-abusing, RAT 98390 malware, the minute you went to one adult page, information to contact info I discovered on your devices and remember there is a lot of these, not including Double VPN As a result, I forced my malware to hook up to a mic, web camera and catch the video from it, poisoned a number of adult sites, video clip to fit on a single tv screen, This letter has invisible monitoring program inside and i will be aware of when you are going to check, doing ur stuff and a clip u jerked to, the investigation will last, I uploaded our malicious program on your device, furthermore malware saved exactly the video you chose, its a record with your wanking, friends will see u taking proper care of yourself, Your system is controlled by the malicious program, If you were more careful while playing with yourself, that whacking off to adult web-sites is, adult website which was poisoned with my malware, nor i think that jerking off to porn sites is really a gross thing, so I dgf lmao, proof just reply to this email with, if you want me to destroy all this compromising evidence, will send your video to 5 contacts, amount in Usd that can cope with this scenario, You are welcome to contact your local authorities, If you want proof, reply with, i pride myself in being apart of an internet group, so i dgf, I take good care of my being anonymous, information related to the RAT virus, been able get in to all ur units, to all of your contacts including, search engines like goo, case sensitive, so copy,, and at this moment I, It is a non-nego, don't waste my perso, thi s mes, back while visiting, showe ring, what should you do ?, porno webpage, this embarrassing situation, navigated to the page, bare-assed, on well-known websites and publications, I got an order from someone to kill you and your family, immediately kill your family, is an explosive device, My mercenary is, explosive device detonates, triggered your webcam, piquant websites, my exploit downloaded, replenish btc wallet, i‌nstanta‌neo‌usly ‌erase, actua‌l r‌eco‌rded ma‌t‌eri‌al, n‌egl‌ect this ‌ema‌i‌l, my RAT trojan, video you jerked, I used keylogger, your disk dump, malware intercepts, installed a malware, remo‌v‌e yo‌ur vi‌deo‌ fo‌o‌ta‌ge, RAT onto your computer, greasy stimulating actions, excentric preferrables, porn web-page, to your Tax Department, network will be DDoS, friends, WannaCry, building a protection policy, in Tax Departament, Yours service going, we pass CloudFlare, hear fake-experts, backuped phone, -1663, of your joys, digits your phone, (porno), BIG pervert, both files and scale, naughty video clips, Soy un hacker, I installed spyware, n website with teen, malware on the porn website, very own recorded material"
submitted by EugeneBYMCMB to Scams [link] [comments]

هاوینگ بیت کوین

هاوینگ بیت کوین

هاوینگ بیت کوین

هاوینگ بیت کوین ۲۳ اردیبهشت اتفاق خواهد افتاد. اما هاونیگ بیت کوین چیست؟ تاثیر هایونگ بر قیمت بیت کوین چه خواهد بود؟ چه معنایی برای استخراج‌کنندگان و چشم‌انداز بلند مدت ارزهای دیجیتال خواهد داشت؟ برای پاسخ به این سوالات با ما همراه باشید.

این مطلب در یک نگاه …

۰. سه نظریه درباره تاثیر هاوینگ بر قیمت بیت کوین ۰. شرخی کوتاه از هاوینگ بیت کوین
مفصل‌تر بخوانید … ۱. مقدمه ۲. هاوینگ بیت کوین چیست ؟ ۳. چه کسی زمان‌بندی توزیع بیت کوین را تعیین کرده است؟ چرا؟ ۴. تأثیر هاوینگ بر قیمت بیت کوین چگونه است؟ ۵. چرا استخراج کنندگان پاداش دریافت می‌کنند؟ ۶. چه اتفاقی می‌افتد اگر پاداش بلاک‌ها کم شود؟ ۷. جمع‌بندی

۰. سه نظریه درباره تاثیر هاوینگ بر قیمت بیت کوین

یک

برخی اعتقاد دارند که با کاهش نرخ بیت کوین‌هایی که ماینرها می‌توانند به سیستم تزریق کنند، و با فرض ثابت ماند تقاضا، ارزش بیت کوین بیشتر می‌شود. این تئوری به این شکل است که زمانی که عرضه بیت کوین کاهش می‌یابد، تقاضا برای آن ثابت باقی می‌ماند و قیمت را بالا می‌برد. اگر این نظریه صحیح باشد، ما می‌توانیم افزایش قیمت را بعد از هاوینگ‌های بعدی، مشاهده کنیم.

دو

برخی دیگر استدلال می کنند که با توجه به قابل پیش‌بینی بودن این برنامه و آگاهی همه از آن، تاثیر هاوینگ بر قیمت بیت کوین پیش از اتفاق افتادن آن رخ می‌دهد. این تئوری می‌گوید که، معامله‌گران مدتهاست که می‌دانند پاداش بلوک بیت کوین کاهش خواهد یافت. این آگاهی به آنها زمان کافی را برای آماده‌سازی ‌می‌دهد. در نتیجه در نتیجه افراد بیت کوین می‌خرند و با افزایش تقاضا، و از طرفی دیگر حرکت گاوی قیمت بیت کوین قبل از هاوینگ بالا می‌رود.

سه

برخی دیگر کمی پیچیده‌تر فکر می‌کنند. آن‌ها می‌گویند که با آگاهی افراد از این اتفاق قابل پیش‌بنی، تقاضا برای بیت کوین بالا می‌رود و سرمایه‌گذران زمان کافی برای آماده‌سازی خواهند داشت. در نتیجه تاثیر هاوینگ بر قیمت بیت کوین (بخاطر این قابل پیش‌بینی بودن) قبل از رخ دادن اتقاف میافتد. برخی از این پدیده با نام پیشخور شدن یاد می‌کند.
حال این افراد می‌گویند که اگر قرار بود هاوینگ بر قیمت تاثیر داشته باشد، باید تا الان تاثیر خود را می‌گذاشت. در حالی که چنین تاثیری مشاهده نشده است. بنابراین اگر تا کنون تاثیری نداشته است، پس از این به بعد، و با رخ دادن آن در ۲۳ اردیبهشت هم اتفاقی نخواهد افتاد.
۰. اگر وقت ندارید این داستان را بخوانید …

۱

پول، دقیقا مثل همه‌ی کالاهای دیگر است. ارزش یک پول به مقدار عرضه آن، مقداری که از آن وجود دارد و میزان تقاضایش بستگی دارد. دولت‌ها هر زمانی که بخواهند می‌توانند پول چاپ کنند. معمولا بانک‌های مرکزی هر چند ماه یک بار جمع می‌شوند تا تصمیم بگیرند که عرضه پول را، با چاپ آن دوباره تنظیم بکنند یا نه. اما اگه شرایط اضطراری پیش آید، این تصمیم خیلی سریع‌تر گرفته می‌شود. درست مثل همان چیزی که با آمدن کرونا شاهدش بودیم. اما بیت کوین هیچ بانکی مرکزی‌ای یا هیئت مدیری‌ای یا جایی که بتواند کنترلش کند ندارد. پس چگونه بیت کوین تصمیم می‌گیرد که چه قدر بیت کوین چاپ کند؟ در طول فرایندی به اسم هاوینگ!

۲

در سال ۲۰۰۸ ساتوشی ناکاموتو خالق بیت کوین ایده‌ای در سر داشت. چه می‌شد اگر آدم‌ها را به طور کامل از شر دخالت دولت‌ها و مراکز بر روی پول خلاص می‌کردیم و مطابق با یک برنامه مشخص که بیشتر از ۱۰۰ سال طول میکشید پول خاصی را خلق می‌کردیم که توسط خود انسان‌ها کنترل می‌شد؟ این پول احتمالا خسته کننده، قابل پیش بینی و قابل اعتماد می‌بود. چرا که افراد می‌توانستند بر اساس آن برنامه‌ریزی‌های بلندمدتشان را با اعتماد و بدون نگرانی درباره اتفاق‌های ناگهانی یا غیرقابل پیش بینی انجام دهند. اما برای آکه بیت کوین ارزشمند بماند، باید نایاب باشد، دقیقا مثل طلا. ناکاموتو حداکثر تعداد بیت کوین‌ها ممکن رو ۲۱ میلیون تعیین کرد. بنابراین عرضه بیت کوین محدود است و به لطف هاوینگ نرخ عرضه غیرقابل تغییر و قابل پیش‌بینی دارد. اما هاوینگ چگونه کار میکند؟

۳

بیایید اول فرایند استخراج را مرور کنیم. اینگونه فکر کنید که استخراج یه قرعه کشی است که هر ۱۰ دقیقه یک برنده دارد. و ماینرها برای وارد شدن به این قرعه کشی، یک مساله ریاضی را حل میکنند و یک بلیت قرعه کشی به دست میاورند. در اوایل، کامپیوترها برای ایجاد این بلیت‌ها طراحی نشده بودند. بنابراین هر ماینر تعداد بلیت زیادی را نمیتونست برای هر قرعه کشی ایجاد کند. در نیتجه هر کسی می‌توانست با کامپیوترش بلیت به دست آورد و برای شرکت در این قرعه کشی و برنده شدن شانس داشته باشه. در واقع مثلا اگر شما ۳ بلیت به دست میاوردید، برای برنده شدن در قرعه کشی ۳ شانس داشتید. اما الان تو سال ۲۰۲۰ ماشین‌های خاصی برای استخراج وجود دارند و شرکت‌ها انبارهای بزرگی را با این ماشین‌ها پر میکنند. این انبارها در جاهایی از جهان هستند که برق ارزان هستند.

۴

هر ۱۰ دقیقه یک ماینر خوش شانس در این قرعه کشی برنده میشود. و به عنوان پاداش به او بیت کوین داده میشود. در سالاهای اول زمانی که بیت کوین ارزشی نداشت این پاداش ۵۰ بیت کوین در هر ۱۰ دقیقه بود. که به پول الان چیزی حدود ۲۵۰ هزار دلار می‌شد! اما در آن زمان ارزشش حتی کمتر از ۵۰ سنت بوده است! با گذشت زمان و با رخ دادن هاوینگ در هر چهار سال، مقدار این پاداش هم کم شده است. در اولین هاوینگ در سال ۲۰۱۲ پاداش از ۵۰ به ۲۵ رسید و قیمت از ۲ دلار به ۲۷۰ دلار افزایش یافت. در سال ۲۰۱۶ قیمت به ۷۰۰ دلار رسید و تا حباب های سال ۲۰۱۷ و ۲۰۱۸ به رشدش ادامه داد. تو هاونیگ بعدی پاداش به ۶.۲۵ می‌رسد اما معلوم نیست اتفاقی مشابه برای قیمت بیافتد یا نه. هاونیگ تعداد ییت کوین‌هایی که می‌توان در قرعه کشی برنده شد را کاهش می‌دهد. اما همزمان تعداد بلیت‌هایی که در هر قرعه کشی می‌تواند شرکت کند هم بیشتر و بیشتره شده است. شرکت تو این قرعه کشی برای ماینر‌ها از نظر مالی صرفه دارد. چرا که در کنار کاهش پاداش‌ها، ارزش بیت کوین هم بالا رفته است.

۵

بنابراین هاوینگ یک فرایند کند، بلند مدت و قابل پیش بینی برای کاهش نرخ تعداد بیت کوین های جدیدی است که به وجود می‌آیند. این فرایند تا جایی که دیگه استخارج بیت کوین‌های جدید هیج معنایی نداشته باشه ادامه دارد. در طول سال‌ها رقابت بین ماینرها بیشتر و بیشتر شده. و حتی ماینرهایی که به دنبال درامد روزانه هستند هم جذب شده‌اند. همه‌ی این‌ها امنیت شبکه بیت کوین رو بیشتر میکند. هیچ کس نمی‌تواند بگوید که تاثیر هاوینگ بر قیمت چه خواهد بود و قیمت بعد از هاوینگ بعدی چه قدر بالا می‌رود. برخی انتظار اتفاق‌های بزرگی را دارند. شاید ۶ رقمی شدن بیت کوین! در حالی که دیگران فکر می‌کنند که چون این بار همه از هاونیگ خبر دارند، پس تاثیرش از قبل بر روی قیمت آمده است.

۶

یکی از سوال‌هایی که باقی می‌ماند این است که آیا با کم شدن پاداش‌ها، همچنان استخراج برای ماینرها جذاب می‌ماند؟ یادتان باشد که اگه ماینرها سود نکنند، دیگر استخراج نخواهند کرد. به هر حال آن‌ها محض رضای خدا هزینه‌ای برای برق و ماشین‌ها پرداخت نمی‌کنند. پس اگه قیمت بیت کوین بالا نرود، احتمالا ماینرها هزینه انتقال بیشتری را از کاربران طلب خواهند کرد. که باعث میشود سیستم بیت کوین برای انتقال ارزش گران و پرهزینه باشد.
هاونیگ به طور منظم مثل یک ساعت اتفاق می‌افتد و فارغ از نتیجه نهایی، مکانیزمی جذاب برای جلو بردن سیستم بیت کوین و به طور قطع از خلاقانه‌ترین تجربه‌ها در جهان بلاک چین است.
هاوینگ بیت کوین چیست | زمان هاوینگ بیت کوین | تاثیر هاوینگ بر قیمت بیت کوین

مفصل‌تر بخوانید …

۱. مقدمه

شاید در نگاه اول،فکر کنید هاوینگ، اسم یک فیلم ترسناک درباره قتل‌های زنجیره‌ای باشد. در حالی که هاوینگ، نام یکی از جذاب‌ترین اتفاقات در طول تاریخ بیت کوین است. «هاوینگ» معادل لغت «Halving» است. Halving در انگلیسی به معنای نصف شدن است. برای مثال جمله‌ی «the halving of oil price» به معنای نصف شدن قیمت نفت است. خیلی خلاصه منظور از هاوینگ بیت کوین، نصف شدن پاداش هر بلاک است.
در ماه می (حدود ۲۳ اردیبهشت)، تعداد بیت‌کوین‌هایی (BTC) که در هر ۱۰ دقیقه وارد گردش می‌شوند (همان پاداش بلاک) به نصف کاهش می‌یابد و از ۱۲.۵ بیت‌کنوین به ۶.۲۵ بیت‌کوین می‌رسد. این اتفاق به راحتی قابل دیدن و پیش‌بنی است. چرا که هر چهار سال یک بار اتفاق می‌افتد و قبلا هم دو بار اتفاق افتاده است.
طمع رسیدن به ثروت، چیزی است که توجه‌ها را به این اتفاق جلب می‌کند. مقدار بیت‌کوین‌هایی که به سیستم تزریق می‌شود، به ناگهان کاهش پیدا می‌کند. در حالی که بر روی کاغد، تقاضا ثابت خواهد ماند. در نتیجه این اتفاق (و با توجه به نمودار عرضه و تقاضا در اقتصاد) احتمالا قیمت بیت کوین بالا خواهد رفت. به این ترتیب، این رویداد بحث‌های زیادی را درباره پیش بینی قیمت بیت کوین و نحوه پاسخگویی بازار به آن راه انداخته است.
📷نمودار تقاضا و عرضه بیت کوین‌های جدید وارد شده به سیستم (در هر ده دقیقه) پس از رخ دادن هالوینگ
چند نکته: ۱. این نمودار نمودار اصلی عرضه و تقاضای بیت کوین نیست. چرا که حتی با کاهش نرخ تعداد بیت‌کوین‌هایی که به سیستم وارد می‌شود، باز هم میزان عرضه بیت‌کوین افزایش خواهد یافت. عرضه در این نمودار، مربوط به بیت‌کوین‌های جدید است. ۲. معلوم نیست که چه اتفاقی برای تقاضا خواهد افتاد. اما اگر فرض کنیم تقاضا ثابت است، بر روی کاغذ قیمت این بیت‌کوین‌های جدید باید بالا رود. ۳. با بالا رفتن قیمت بیت‌کوین‌های جدید، قیمت کل بیت‌کوین‌های در بازار نیز تحت تاثیر قرار می‌گیرد.
مایکل دوبروسکی (Michael Dubrovsky)، بنیانگذار بخش تحقیق و توسعه در PoWx می‌گوید:
زمانی که استخراج‌کنندگان، بیت‌کوین‌های کمتری برای فروش داشته باشند، در نتیجه بیت‌کوین‌های کمتری برای خرید در دسترس خواهد بود.
اما کاهش دوره‌ای نرخ استخراج بیت کوین، نسبت به هرگونه حرکت کوتاه مدت دیگری ذر قیمت می‌تواند برای عملکرد بیت کوین اهمیت داشته باشد. پاداش بلوک یکی از مولفه های مهم بیت کوین است. چیزی که امنیت سیستم بیت کوین را تضمین می‌کند. با توجه به اینکه در دهه‌های آینده، این پاداش‌ها به صفر می‌رسند، می‌توانند انگیزه‌های اقتصادی برای استخراج بیت کوین را از بین ببرند. چیزی که در نهایت امنیت شبکه بیت کوین را تحیت تاثیر قرار می‌دهد.
هاوینگ بیت کوین چیست | زمان هاوینگ بیت کوین | تاثیر هاوینگ بر قیمت بیت کوین

۲. هاوینگ بیت کوین چیست ؟

بیت کوین‌های جدیدی که به عنوان پاداش بلاک، به چرخه بیت‌کوین‌ها وارد می‌شوند، توسط استخراج کنندگان یا ماینرها تولید می‌شود. این استخراج کنندگان از تجهیزات الکترونیکی گران‌قیمتی برای به دست آوردن یا استخراج استفاده می‌کنند. در هر ۲۱۰،۰۰۰ بلاک، یا تقریبا در هر چهار سال، تعداد کل بیت کوین که استخراج کنندگان به طور بالقوه می‌توانند برنده شوند، نصف می‌شود.
📷عرضه بیت کوین و پاداش های بلاکی
در سال ۲۰۰۹، این سیستم با ۵۰ سکه بیت کوین برای پاداش هر بلاک در هر ۱۰ دقیقه شروع به کار کرد. در حال حاضر با گذشت ۲ هاوینگ، این پاداش به ۱۲.۵ بیت کوین رسیده است. این فرایند درزمانی که کل ۲۱ میلیون بیت کوین (احتمالا در سال ۲۱۴۰) استحراج شود به پایان خواهد رسید.
هاوینگ بیت کوین چیست | زمان هاوینگ بیت کوین | تاثیر هاوینگ بر قیمت بیت کوین

۳. چه کسی زمان‌بندی توزیع بیت کوین را تعیین کرده است؟ چرا؟

ساتوشی ناکاموتو (Satoshi Nakamoto)! خالق بیت کوین، که البته شاید تنها یک نام مستعار از یک فرد یا یک گروه باشد. او تقریبا یک سال پس از انتشار این نرم افزار به جهان ناپدید شد. بنابراین او، یا آنها (ما از این بعد با «آن‌ها» به او اشاره می‌کنیم) دیگر نیستند تا توضیح دهند که چرا این فرمول خاص را برای افزودن بیت کوین‌های جدید به سیستم انتخاب کردند. (و چرا اصلا تعداد آن‌ها را به ۲۱ میلیون محدود کرده‌اند، چرا مثال عدد ۱۰۰ میلیون را انتخاب نکردند؟!)
اما ایمیل‌های الکترونیکی اولیه که توسط ناکاموتو نوشته است، تا حدی این موضوع را روشن می‌کند. اندکی پس از انتشار مقاله بیت کوین، ناکاموتو به طور خلاصه درباره روش‌های مختلفی که سیاست پولی منتخب آنها (برنامه‌ی زمانی که استخراج کنندگان مطابق با آن پاداش خود را دریافت می‌کنند) عمل خواهد کرد و در مورد شرایطی که این امر می‌تواند منجر به رکود (زمانی که قدرت خرید ارز افزایش پیدا می‌کند) یا تورم (زمانی که قیمت کالاها یا خدماتی که می‌توان با یک ارز خرید کرد افزایش پیدا می‌کند) شود توضیح داد.
در آن زمان، ناکاموتو نمی‌توانست حدس بزند که چند نفر از این پول آنلاین جدید استفاده خواهد کرد. آنها درباره اینکه چرا این فرمول خاص را انتخاب کردند، خیلی کم توضیح دادند: «سکه‌ها به هر حال باید از ابتدا توزیع شوند و به نظر می رسد یک نرخ ثابت بهترین فرمول است.» جمله اصلی ناکاموتو به شکل زیر است.
«Coins have to get initially distributed somehow, and a constant rate seems like the best formula.»
در اکثر ارزهای منتشر شده، یک بانک مرکزی دارای ابزارهایی است که به آن امکان افزودن یا حذف آن ارز از سیستم را می دهد. مثلا بانک مرکزی آمریکا، می‌تواند دلار چاپ کند یا دلارها را از بازار جمع کند. به عنوان مثال اگر اقتصاد در وضع بدی باشد، دولت می‌تواند گردش مالی را افزایش داده و با خرید اوراق بهادار از بانک‌ها به افراد وام‌ دهد. از طرف دیگر، اگر دولت بخواهد دلارها را از اقتصاد خارج کند، می تواند اوراق بهادار را خود را به افراد بفروشد.
در آن زمان، ناکاموتو نمی‌توانست حدس بزند که چند نفر از این پول آنلاین جدید استفاده خواهد کرد. (حتی نمی‌دانست که اصلا کسی استفاده خواهد کرد یا نه)
At the time, Nakamoto couldn’t have known how many people would use the new online money (if anyone).
چه خوب باشد چه بد، بیت کوین کمی با بقیه فرق دارد. مقدار عرضه‌ی این ارز و زمان آن دقیقا مطابق با یک برنامه زمان‌بندی مشخص تعیین شده. و این برنامه غیر قابل تغییر است.
بر خلاف سیاست پولی ارزهای صادر شده دولتی، که از طریق فرآیندهای سیاسی و نهادهای انسانی وضع می‌شود، سیاست پولی بیت کوین توسط کدی که در شبکه پخش می‌شود، تعیین می‌شود. اگر این کد بخواهد تغییر کند، نیاز به یک هماهنگی و توافق جمعی در بین کل جامعه و شبکه بیت کوین است.
بلاکچین دات کام (Blockchain.com) در یکی از مطالب خود که در وبلاگش پیش از هاوینگ سال ۲۰۱۶ منتشر شد می‌گوید: «بر خلاف اکثر ارزهای ملی که می‌شناسیم، مانند دلار یا یورو، بیت کوین با یک عرضه ثابت و برنامه زمان‌بندی قابل پیش‌بینی طراحی شده است. فقط ۲۱ میلیون بیت کوین وجود خواهد داشت. این تعداد از پیش تعیین شده باعث محدود شدن آن می‌شود. این محدودیت و کمیابی بیت کوین (مانند طلا) در کنار کاربرد آن است که باعث حفظ ارزش آن در بازار می‌شود.»
یکی دیگر از جنبه های منحصر به فرد بیت کوین، برنامه ناکاموتو برای پاداش بلاک‌ها است. پاداش بلاک‌ها در طول زمان کاهش پیدا می‌کند. این موضوع یکی دیگر از تفاوت‌های بیت کوین با سیستم های مالی مدرن است. سیستم‌هایی که در آن بانک های مرکزی عرضه پول را کنترل می‌کنند. برخلاف بیت کوین، عرضه دلار از سال ۲۰۰۰ تا کنون حدودا سه برابر شده است.

ناکاموتو سرنخ‌هایی را از این که بیت کوین را به دلایل سیاسی به وجود آورده جای گذاشته است.

اولین بلاک بلاکچین بیتکوین Genesis block است. این بلاک که ده ساله شده در ۳ ژانویه ۲۰۰۹ توسط ساتوشی استخراج شد. نکته جالب پیام مخفی­ است که ساتوشی در آن قرار داده. یکی از پارامتر‌هایی که در هر بلاکی ذخیره می‌شود کوین­ بیس (Coinbase) نام دارد. کوی­ن‌بیس پارامتری است که میزان پاداش ماینرها به ازای ساخت یک بلاک را معین می‌کند. اما در اولین بلاک یا همان بلاک جنسیس، می­‌توان هر متغییری را در آن جای داد. نکته جالب این است که ناکاموتو رشته­ ی (string) زیر را در این بلاک جای داده است:
{۰۴FFFF001D0104455468652054696D65732030332F4A616E2F323030 39204368616E63656C6C6F72206F6E206272696E6B206F66207365636 F6E64206261696C6F757420666F722062616E6B73}
پس از رمزگشایی این رشته متن زیر به دست می‌آید.
{The Times 03/Jan/2009 Chancellor on brink of second bailout for banks}.
که معنای آن این است: «روزنامه The Times در تاریخ ۳ ژانویه ۲۰۰۹ رئیس خزانه‌داری [انگلستان] در آستانه‌ی اهدای کمک مالی به بانک‌ها است.». این پیام بی‌ثباتی­‌های اقتصادی که بخاطر استفاده­‌ی گسترده از سیستم بانکداری ذخیره کسری به وجود آمده است را سرزنش می‌کند. در سیستم ذخیره کسری، بانک می‌تواند پول افراد را به افراد یا شرکت­‌های دیگر وام دهد. در واقع، می‌تواند پول تولید کند!
بسیاری این پیام را به عنوان نشانه‌ای از عقاید و اهداف سیاسی ناکاموتو تفسیر می‌کنند. بیت کوین در صورت پذیرفته شدن توسط جوامع، می‌تواند قدرت پولی را که بانک‌ها و دولت‌ها بر سیاست‌های پولی دارند را کاهش دهد. هیچ نهاد مرکزی نمی‌تواند بیت کوین را خارج از برنامه دقیق آن ایجاد کند.
هاوینگ بیت کوین چیست | زمان هاوینگ بیت کوین | تاثیر هاوینگ بر قیمت بیت کوین

۴. تأثیر هاوینگ بر قیمت بیت کوین چگونه است؟

بسیاری از افراد فکر می‌کنندکه تاثیر هاوینگ بر قیمت بیت کوین مثبت است. تا جایی که آن را تا حد بسیار زیادی افزایش می‌دهد. برای همین موضوع نیز توجه خیلی‌ها به هاوینگ جلب شده است. اما حقیقت این است که، هیچ کس نمی‌داند چه اتفاقی خواهد افتاد. بیت کوین تاکنون دو بار هاوینگ را تجربه کرده است.
📷جدول زمان‌بندی هاوینگ‌های بیت کوین
هاوینگ سال ۲۰۱۲ برای اولین بار نشان داد که بازار چگونه به آن واکنش نشان خواهد داد. تا آن زمان، جامعه بیت کوین خیلی دقیق نمی‌دانست (یا همه‌ی آن‌ها نمی‌دانستند) که چگونه یک کاهش ناگهانی در پاداش می‌تواند روی شبکه تاثیر بگذارد. تنها اندکی پس از هاوینگ بود که دیدند با هاوینگ قیمت شروع به افزایش کرد.
دومین هاوینگ که در سال ۲۰۱۶ رخ داد، کاملا پیش‌بینی شده بود. درست مانند همین هاونیگی که در پیش است. مثال الان که برخی از سایت‌ها مانند coindesk.com یک روز شمار برای آن قرار دادند، در آن زمان نیز این روز شمار وجود داشت. همه به دنبال آن بودند تا ببیند هاوینگ چه تاثیری بر قیمت خواهد داشت.
در تاریخ ۱۶ ژوئیه ۲۰۱۶، روزی که هاونیگ دوم رخ داد، قیمت ۱۰ درصد کاهش یافت و به ۶۱۰ دلار رسید، اما سپس به همان جایی که قبلا بود بازگشت. شواهد اندکی وجود داشت که نشان می‌داد کاهش ناگهانی نرخ استخراج بیت کوین تاثیر طولانی مدتی بر قیمت داشته باشد. در آن زمان، جیکوب دونلیلی تا آنجا پیش رفت که این رویداد را «عذاب کسالت آور» خواند.

.

در حالی که تاثیر فوری بر قیمت بیت کوین اندک بود، بازار به تدریج نسبت به هاوینگ واکنش نشان داد و قیمیتش افزایش پیدا کرد. برخی معتقدند که این افزایش قیمت نتیجه با تاخیری از هاوینگ بوده است. این تئوری به این شکل است که زمانی که عرضه بیت کوین کاهش می‌یابد، تقاضا برای آن ثابت باقی می‌ماند و قیمت را بالا می‌برد. اگر این نظریه صحیح باشد، ما می‌توانیم افزایش قیمت‌های مشابه را بعد از هاوینگ‌های بعدی، از جمله هاوینگ امسال مشاهده کنیم.
برخی دیگر استدلال می کنند که با توجه به قابل پیش‌بینی بودن این برنامه و آگاهی همه از آن، این تغییر در نرخ استخراج پیش از آنکه اتفاق بیافتد بر قیمت تاثیر خواهد داشت. آن‌ها تنها معتقند که این تاثیر از قبل گذاشته می‌شود. این تئوری می‌گوید که، معامله‌گران مدتهاست که می‌دانند پاداش بلوک بیت کوین کاهش خواهد یافت. این آگاهی به آنها زمان کافی را برای آماده‌سازی ‌می‌دهد. در نتیجه در نتیجه افراد بیت کوین می‌خرند و با افزایش تقاضا، و از طرفی دیگر حرکت گاوی قیمت بیت کوین قبل از هاوینگ بالا می‌رود.
برخی دیگر کمی پیچیده‌تر فکر می‌کنند. آن‌ها می‌گویند که با آگاهی افراد از این اتفاق قابل پیش‌بنی، تقاضا برای بیت کوین بالا می‌رود و سرمایه‌گذران زمان کافی برای آماده‌سازی خواهند داشت. در نتیجه تاثیر هاوینگ بر قیمت بیت کوین (بخاطر این قابل پیش‌بینی بودن) قبل از رخ دادن اتقاف میافتد. برخی از این پدیده با نام پیشخور شدن یاد می‌کند.
حال این افراد می‌گویند که اگر قرار بود هاوینگ بر قیمت تاثیر داشته باشد، باید تا الان تاثیر خود را می‌گذاشت. در حالی که چنین تاثیری مشاهده نشده است. بنابراین اگر تا کنون تاثیری نداشته است، پس از این به بعد، و با رخ دادن آن در ۲۳ اردیبهشت هم اتفاقی نخواهد افتاد.
هاوینگ بیت کوین چیست | زمان هاوینگ بیت کوین | تاثیر هاوینگ بر قیمت بیت کوین

۵. چرا استخراج کنندگان پاداش دریافت می‌کنند؟

دلیل آن این است که، بدون این پپاداش بلاک‌ها، بیت کوین اصلا کار نمی‌کند.
هسو (Hasu) به عنوان یک محقق مستقل می‌گوید که بیت‌کوین، تنها در صورتی می‌تواند به فعالیت خود ادامه دهد که بلاکچین آن بتواند پاسخ به دو سوال را بدهد. چه کسی مالک چه چیزی است، و در چه زمانی مالک آن چیز است. بخش اول، «چه کسی مالک چه چیزی است؟» با رمزنگاری حل می‌شود. فقط صاحب یک کلید خصوصی می‌تواند بیت کوین را خرج کند.
هسو توضیح می‌دهد: «بخش دوم، یعنی چه زمانی صاحب آن چیز است، چالش بزرگی است. اگر به این سوال پاسخ داده نشود، مردم می‌توانند بیت کوین‌های خود را دو بار خرج (double-spend) کنند.
بدون پاداش بلاک، شبکه در هرج و مرج خواهد بود. هسو توضیح می‌دهد که استخراج‌کنندگان، در صورت داشتن قدرت محاسباتی کافی، خودشان می‌توانند به دو طریق به شبکه حمله کنند! اول با دوبار خرج کردن بیت ‌کوین‌ها و دوم با متوقف کردن معاملات و جلوگیری ار انجام شدن آن‌ها. اما باید گفت که آن‌ها هیچ کدام از این کارها را نمی‌کنند. چرا که در این صورت پاداش بلاک را از دست خواهند داد.
به عبارت دیگر ، در صورت عدم پیروی از قوانین ، استخراج کنندگان پول از دست می‌دهند
هرچه قدرت پردازشگرهای محاسباتی بیشتری به سمت بیت کوین هدایت شود، حمله به آن سخت تر می‌شود. چرا که یک مهاجم برای اجرای حمله بخ شبکه، نیاز به بخش قابل توجهی از این قدرت پردازشی، معروف به hashrate دارد. هرچه استخراج کنندگان از طریق پاداش‌های بلوکی بتوانند درآمد بیشتری کسب کنند، قدرت استخراج بیشتری به سمت بیت کوین می‌آید و به این ترتیب از شبکه محافظت می‌شود.
هاوینگ بیت کوین چیست | زمان هاوینگ بیت کوین | تاثیر هاوینگ بر قیمت بیت کوین

۶. چه اتفاقی می‌افتد اگر پاداش بلاک‌ها کم شود؟

دقیقا به همین خاطر است که کاهش دوره‌ای پاداش‌ها به یک نگرانی و مساله تبدیل می‌شود. اگر پاداش بلاک‌ها کاهش یابد، امنیت شبکه چگونه تامین خواهد شد؟!
استخارج کنندگان برای ادامه دادن به استخراج (یا در واقع تایید یا رد تراکنش‌های شبکه) باید انگیزه یا محرک داشته باشند. آنها باید حقوق بگیرند 🙂 . هیچ استخراج کننده‌ای محض رضای خدا رایانه‌های گرانقیمت و هزینه برق و انرژی خود را صرف این کار نمی‌کند. این در حالی است که بالاخره در نهایت این پاداش به صفر می‌رسد (در سال ۲۱۴۰). ولی باید گفت که علاوه بر پاداش بلاک‌ها، استخراج کنندگان از محل هزینه تراکنش (Transaction fees) نیز درآمد دارند. انتظار می‌رود با سقوط پاداش بلاک‌ها، هزینه‌های انتقال به منبع مهمی از پاداش استخراج کنندگان تبدیل شود.
ناکاموتو می‌نویسد: «در طی چند دهه وقتی که پاداش بلاک‌ها خیلی کم شود، هزینه تراکنش تبدیل به منبع صلی درآمد برای نودهای شبکه (یا استخراج کنندگان)‌ می‌شود. من مطمئن هستم که در طی ۲۰ سال، حجم معاملات یا خیلی خیلی زیاد باشد، یا اصلا معامله‌ای در کار نباشد!»
اما مدت طولانی است که محققان بیت کوین در حال بررسی این موضوع هستند که آیا هزینه تراکنش برای انگیزه دادن برای استخراج کنندگان کافی هست یا نه. یک دیدگاه آت است که هزینه تراکنش‌ها باید در طول زمان افزایش یابد تا بتوان امنیت شبکه را تضمین کرد.
پیش بینی اینکه چه اتفاقی خواهد افتاد غیرممکن است، اما اگر سیستمی می‌خواهیم که بتواند ۱۰۰ سال عمر کند، باید برای بدترین حالت آماده باشیم.
دوبروسکی (Dubrovsky) می‌گوید: «حل این مشکل بدون استفاده از هزینه‌های تراکنش بسیار بالا ممکن نست. چرا که شبکه بیت کوین نمی‌تواند تعداد تراکنش‌های زیادی را در زمان انجام دهد، بنابراین باید از محل همان تراکنش‌های کم، هزینه تراکنش بالای را دریفات کند.»
همانطور که در بالا گفته شد، این پاداش‌های استخراج است که قدرت محاسبات بیشتری را به بیت کوین می‌کشاند، و آن را در برابر حمله‌هایی که سعی دارند قوانین شبکه را زیر پا بگذارند حفظ کند. در واقع، علت آنکه استخراج کنندگان استخراج می‌کنند، به دست آوردن پاداش شبکه است، نه هزینه تراکنش‌ها. محل اصلی درآمد پاداش اتس. معلوم نیست که آیا پاداش‌های کم در آینده حتی در صورت وجود هزینه‌های شبکه، برای استخراج کندگان کافی باشد یا نه.
هسو می‌گوید: «من فکر نمی‌کنم که این هاوینگ امنیت شبکه بیت کوین را به میزان قابل توجهی کاهش دهد. اما در ۸ یا ۱۲ سال، این موضوع واقعا مهم خواهد شد.»
بخشی از مشکل این است که با وجود گذشت بیش از یک دهه از تولد بیت کوین، هنوز هم بازار در حال محاسبه هزینه‌ی واقعی محافظت محافظت از شبکه در برابر مهاجمان است.
دوبروسکی (Dubrovsky) بحث می‌کند که: «هیچ کسی نمی‌داند که برای امن نگه داشتن شبکه بیت‌کوین، چه سطح از امنیت توسط استخارج کنندگان نیاز است. در حال حاضر، بیت کوین چیزی در حدود ۵ میلیارد دلار گردش مالی دارد و تا کنون هیچ حمله موفقی صورت نگرفته است. با این حال، هیچ پیش‌بینی از ارزش و قیمت این امنیت وجود ندارد. ممکن است بیت کوین بیش از حد امنیت دارد و بیش از حد به استخارج کنندگان پرداخت می‌کند. برای پیدا کردن حداقل امنیت مورد نیاز برای جلوگیری از حملات، باید پاداش‌های استخراج کنندگان را تا جای که حملات موفقی صورت گیرد کاهش داد. حال هیچ کسی نمی‌داند که با کاهش پاداش بلاک‌ها، و از بین رفتن انگیزه و محرک استخارج کنندگان، چه بلایی به سر امنیت شبکه خواهد آمد»
او ادامه می‌دهد: «مطمئنا این موضوع برای بیت کوین فاجعه‌بار خواهد بود، اما اگر پاداش کاهش یابد و جامعه بیت کوین کاری برای آن نکند، واقعا رخ دادن چنین سناریویی محتمل است.»
هسو می‌گوید که «امیدوار است» که هزینه تراکنش‌ها به اندازه‌ای کافی باشد که امنیت شبکه در آخر حفظ شود.
هسو می‌گوید: «انگیزه حمله به شبکه بیت کوین، نسبت به ۵ سال پیش بیشتر است. در حال حاضر [رئیس جمهور ایالات متحده] ترامپ، [رئیس جمهور شی جینپینگ] و دیگر رهبران جهان از بیت کوین انتقاد می‌کنند. هرچه بیت کوین بیشتر رشد کند، بیشتر ممکن است که مورد حمله قرار گیرد.»
این موضوع البته در حال حاضر شاید خیلی مهم نباشد، اما چند سال دیگر واقعا مهم خواهد شد. هسو گفت: «پیش بینی اینکه چه اتفاقی خواهد افتاد غیرممکن است، اما اگر ما سیستمی را می‌خواهیم که ۱۰۰ سال عمر کند، باید برای بدترین حالت آماده باشیم.
هاوینگ بیت کوین چیست | زمان هاوینگ بیت کوین | تاثیر هاوینگ بر قیمت بیت کوین

۷. جمع‌بندی

هاوینگ، یک فرایند بلندمدت، خسته‌کننده و قابل‌پیش‌بینی، برای حفظ ارزش بیت کوین در طول زمان، و کنترل تورم حاصل از عرضه بیت کوین‌های جدید است. هاوینگ این کار را با کند کردن نرخ توزیع در طول زمان انجام می‌دهد. تاثیر هاوینگ بر قیمت، در دوبار قبلی مثبت بوده است. اما اینکه آیا این بار نیز تاثیر مثبتی خواهد داشت، جای سوال دارد.
منابع: ۱. چرا هاوینگ احتمال دارد تاثیری بر قیمت نداشته باشد؟ ۲. هاوینگ چیست؟
submitted by Rabexio to u/Rabexio [link] [comments]

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