HashPower Converter - easily calculate kH/s to MH/s to GH
How to convert m flop/s to hash/s - Quora
Why a GPU mines faster than a CPU - Bitcoin Wiki
GPU vs CPU in mining - Bitcoin
My guess as to why mining will NOT centralize a ton in the future (w/data). Thoughts?
So i've been thinking about mining centralization a bit lately. Keep in mind i'm not technical at all, so this is just some of my guesses. Looking to see where i'm wrong in my thinking (there's prob more than 1). lets assume that we looking at the mining industry in 10 years time. Bitcoin has grown a bit, and ASICs are now down to same nanometer lenght as other chips...ASICs have "caught up". So i started looking at the economics of modern day super computers vs what you can buy off the shelf. Basically what is cost per GFLOP of a supercomputer vs off the shelf item. using numbers here off the shelf costs: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FLOPS#Cost_of_computing and here for one of the most recent supercomputers: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tianhe-2 we arrive at about 9 cents per GFLOP for the $390Million super computer vs about 12 cents per GFLOP for the off the shelf version. Not too much of a difference between supercomputers and off the shelf version when measuring by cost per GFLOP. Afterall, in the real world, the US military actually built a fairly economical supercomputer using something like 1700 Playstation 3's wired together. however, hardware costs are only one part of the equation. Electricity costs are also important. We can look at the below link for average electricity prices around the world. I keep hearing Iceland has cheap electricity but according to the chart below, there are plenty of places with comparable prices. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electricity_pricing#Global_electricity_price_comparison The final area to look at is examining what solar prices/kilowatt will be in 10 years. Could solar provide us with very cheap electricity..practically free for bitcoin miners located in sunny areas like Arizona, etc??? There is plenty of debate about the future of solar, and many links estimating the future cost per kilowatt of solar, but the link below is hoping for about 1.5 cents per kilowatt around the 2020's which would put it among the cheapest on earth according to the Wikipedia article on world wide electricity pricing that i linked above? http://www.rtcc.org/2014/04/30/us-solar-power-installed-costs-on-course-for-2020-target/ TL;DR: Supercomputers today are NOT much more economical that off the shelf processors. Will this hold true for ASICs in 10 years? Will this along with cheap/marginally free solar power lead to a lack of mining centralization? just as cheap (measured $ per hash) for a individual in sunny Arizona to run a few hashes as it would be for a large mining farm? seems its at least POSSIBLE for mining to remain decentralized
Why do more expensive GPUs have worse MH/s rates than less expensive GPUs and graphics cards?
For example, on this page of mining hardware from the sidebar, the NVidia Tesla K20 gets 134.8 Mhash/s and costs over $3,000.00, while an ATI 7970 gets 825 Mhash/s and costs about $380.00. Presumably the NVidia has a higher flop rating than the ATI, so why doesn't the more powerful NVidia have a higher mining rate? Is it that the NVidia simply isn't made for the kind of computing involved in bitcoin mining? EDIT: The ATI card has the following specs
3.79 TFLOPS Single Precision compute power 947 GFLOPS Double Precision compute power 2048 Stream Processors
The NVidia Card has the following specs:
CUDA cores 2496 Peak double precision floating point performance 1.17 Tflops Peak single precision floating point performance 3.52 Tflops
So the Flops are comparable overall, and the NVidia card has more cores. I don't understand how the ATI gets over 6 times the Mhash/s than the Nvidia does.
Bitcoin hashing requires integer math, and flops are a measure of floating point math. So, the comparison you're asking about is kind of apples-to-oranges. But, roughly speaking : > 1 integer operation = 2 floating point operations > 1 hash = 6... Some Bitcoin users might wonder why there is a huge disparity between the mining output of a CPU versus a GPU. First, just to clarify, the CPU, or central processing unit, is the part of the computer that performs the will of the software loaded on the computer. It's the main executive for the entire machine. It is the master that tells all the parts of the computer what to do - in accordance Using this post for data, and as is rightly pointed out the Bitcoin network does a massive 0.0 FLOPS because of the integer thing mentioned before. However: Using an AMD 5970 it does 700MH/s and is capable of 2700 GLOPS (single precision). This gives us 27/7 GFLOPS / (MH/s) ~= 3.85 GFLOPS / (MH/s) As of Saturday, July 25, 2020, it would take 27.2 days to mine 1 Ethereum at the current Ethereum difficulty level along with the mining hashrate and block reward; a Ethereum mining hashrate of 500.00 MH/s consuming 750.00 watts of power at $0.10 per kWh, and a block reward of 2 ETH. The GPU is capable of 1Gpixel/s, 1.5Gtexel/s or 24 GFLOPs of general purpose compute and features a bunch of texture filtering and DMA infrastructure. That is, graphics capabilities are roughly equivalent to Xbox 1 level of performance. Overall real world performance is something like a 300MHz Pentium 2, only with much, much swankier graphics."
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