Should the United States Federal Government regulate Bitcoin

Bitcoin challenged my comprehension of money. and from that, governance too

Social Media hacking jokes aside for today, I thought to share a thought experiment I had on how bitcoin fundamentally challenged the way I view money forever.
I was always told throughout life and even in school that money distributed by the government, managed by the government, but used amount the populus. It wasn't until I was 17 in my senior year where I learned about the in-depth concepts of money with topics such as Federal Reserve Banking (How banks make money), taxes, debt, and fiscal and monetary economy. What's funnier is that when I was 14 I heard about bitcoin, but I thought it was just an idea for some far off technology like Nuclear Fusion or Astro mining. So I'm happy to state I learned more about bitcoin before I learned about my own government monetary system. Unfortunately, It would not be for another 2 years before I learn about cryptocurrency and blockchain entirely and another few months before I can actually buy some.
It was at the moment when I fully understood the concepts of bitcoin where I fell in love with it, the idea that NO government, company, or bank could just step in and take your money. No overdrafts, chargebacks, or no 3-5 days deposits. It is great. I get excited to the point I share all I can to people around me about the concept and yet they are confused like a child learning a new language because the concept of true financial responsibility and digital sovereignty can be complex to comprehend. Many of them refer to the same statements: "Money should be protected and held by the bank so I trust that it will forever be there". As I think of it more I start to think of ways how blockchain technology as a whole can be implemented into fintech (or even become the new fintech). Henry Ford once said that
" It is well enough that people of the nation do not understand our banking and monetary system, for if they did, I believe there would be a revolution before tomorrow morning."
It is merely with the introduction of bitcoin and decentralized finance tools when this quote incubates into fruition. Cryptocurrency as a whole puts the individual in power with the same banking tools as the whole banking collective operates on. I agree that there are many people who are fed up with the banks, and their practices but at the same time those people are even more scared to assume their own financial control due to immense responsibilities the bitcoin introduces (private key, cognitive understanding of the industry and tech). Yes, banks are here to provide a service to the public ease and use, but therein lies the question of how much freedom do people really want when they realize that they are also baring even more responsibilities than they are used to. Great power comes with great responsibility. The more financial freedom (I'm not talking about in dollar amounts, but security and accessibility ) you have over your wealth the more responsibility is needed to maintain it. So then more so this brings furthermore changed my perception that I don't have to be so reliant on centralized parties with my money, but I can own my money on the blockchain and send it anywhere where in the world as I deem fit.
So this brings to my thoughts of how would blockchain systems work in government and laws. The laws are barely adapted to handle the internet as is; now they are further behind to handle blockchain. With coronavirus going around this is a testament to show how we are becoming stronger digital society. I have not been out of my home in the past few days, and most of the older ways of doing things are becoming challenged with the introduction of new technologies. The only thing that defines our governments are the lands in which was founded, discovered, or concurred by winning factions and ideals that ultimately curated most of the cultures we see today. We can speak to anyone we can on the internet in a matter of seconds, make a full-time living, we can buy nearly anything and get it delivered on the same day or week, and be associated with communities that align with our interest all online. So when these apps have more data and international relations than the governments we reside, can governments be more than just "land"?
Finally, this brings into question Facebook and Libra. Facebook is one of the largest public multi-national countries on this planet, and libra in eyes of many just a software update. However, Libra shined a light on so many things I've always wondered. With as powerful as Facebook is that probably knows more about you than your government, and has more international relationships with more countries than your government, if/whenever libra is released, this now puts a corporate entity in charge of your money. And As they say, libra existing on blockchains, really can't be stopped if ever it's released. Sure governments can be banned and sue Facebook all they want, but if there are people using it, the damage is done, they can't shut down Facebook without causing an economic collapse probably one worse than the great depression. Facebook is just too big to fail. Google, Amazon are other companies seeking to challenge governance by cities for their corporate entities and employees. They most likely won't be here in the USA too much regulation, but someone where like Africa or even cities on water .
All in all, as I leave, Everything I knew about finances such as mortgages, paychecks, loans, mediums of exchange, trade, and banking tools are all fundamentally challenged by the introduction of bitcoin. The power lies in those who own the system, and when no one owns the system, but everyone manages it, the real power becomes invested back into the people. With this knowledge, I know that I am truly more powerful than I thought I was, and you should feel empowered as well. Sure the infrastructure may take time before things become convenient enough for wide-scale adoption, but we are the founding fathers and mothers of the first generation in the true power of decentralized tech. We are the ones that decide on how the first implementation of this tech should be used, and that's all by experimentation. I agree that it will be a daunting task and scary for those who are not familiar with this. Like all things that exist it starts with experimentation.
submitted by tycooperaow to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

US digital dollar coming soon? Chainlink, Swift, Federal Reserve, ISO20222, and The Clearing House serving as pieces of the puzzle.

This is my first Reddit thread, so please feel free to contribute your thoughts.
I believe the US digital dollar will be making its debut very soon, which could very well likely be the next One World Currency. I've included a timeline of public releases/announcements that fall in line with my theory. Bear with me, there are lot of moving parts.... There may be some details or insights missing so please feel free to enlighten. I believe this will, in time, lead to a New World Order with one global currency. I would like to be proven wrong.
First things first, there are 3 big players: The Federal Reserve, The Clearing House, and SWIFT with ISO20222 system.
Who is The Clearing House group? Conglomerate of many LARGE banks. Source: https://www.theclearinghouse.org/about/owner-banks
What is CHIPS? The Clearing House Interbank Payments System (CHIPS) is an electronic payments system that transfers funds and settles transactions in U.S. dollars. CHIPS enables banks to transfer and settle international payments more quickly by replacing official bank checks with electronic bookkeeping entries. As of January 2002, CHIPS had 59 members, including large U.S. banks and U.S. branches of foreign banks. Source: https://www.newyorkfed.org/aboutthefed/fedpoint/fed36.html
What is ISO20222? From Swift itself, "ISO 20022 is an emerging global and open standard for payments messaging. It creates a common language and model for payments data across the globe."Source: https://www.swift.com/standards/about-iso-20022
July 16 2018, Federal Reserve Proposes ISO 20022 Message Format for Fedwire Funds Service. 3-step Phase integration of CHIPS & Fedwire. Source: https://www.sullcrom.com/files/upload/SC-Publication-Federal-Reserve-Proposes-ISO-20022-Message-Format-for-Fedwire.pdf
Timeline of 3-step phase model infographic: https://imgur.com/XaNUcR3
July 19 2018, Assocation of Financial Professionals confirms above with article: NY Fed creates group to consider adopting ISO20222: "In 2012, the New York Fed formed a stakeholder group to assess the value in adopting ISO 20022. This led to the 2015 Strategies for Improving the Payment System paper, in which the Fed recommended that the U.S. develop a strategy for adopting the standard. Since that time, the Fed and The Clearing House (TCH) have worked together on plans to adopt ISO 20022 for Fedwire and CHIPS. While they have each opted to implement the standard separately, the Fed and TCH plan to align the implementation of the new format on Fedwire and CHIPS." Source: https://www.afponline.org/ideas-inspiration/topics/articles/Details/fed-seeks-comment-on-iso-20022-fedwire-proposal
Nov 20 2019, The Federal Reserve is looking into developing a digital currency in the US, Powell confirms. Source: https://markets.businessinsider.com/news/stocks/the-federal-reserve-is-looking-into-developing-digital-currency-us-2019-11-1028705211
Nov 25 2019, Coinbase Chief Legal Officer argued private corporations are best positioned to build a much-debated digital U.S. dollar, and that the government should stand back and let them, doing little, if anything, to regulate their underlying blockchains. Source: https://www.coindesk.com/coinbase-legal-chief-says-private-sector-should-build-us-digital-dollar
Jan 16 2020, Former CFTC chair launches US digital dollar research project. https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20200116005116/en/CFTC-Chair-Launches-Digital-Dollar-Project
Feb 6 2020, Federal Reserve researching US digital dollar (CBDC- Central Bank Digital Currency) application. Source: https://www.coindesk.com/fed-reserve-is-researching-dlt-based-digital-dollar-says-governor
Feb 20 2020, "To give consumers more control over their data, FMR LLC, the parent company of Fidelity Investments, today announced the spin-off of Akoya℠ as an independent company that will be jointly owned by Fidelity, The Clearing House Payments Co. and 11 of its member banks. Bank of America, Capital One, Citi, FMR LLC, the parent company of Fidelity Investments, Huntington National Bank, JPMorgan Chase, KeyBank, PNC Bank, The Clearing House Payments Co., TD Bank, Truist, U.S. Bank and Wells Fargo & Company, are the new owners of Akoya." Source: https://www.theclearinghouse.org/payment-systems/articles/2020/02/02-20-2020-financial-industry-give-consumers-more-control-over-their-data
March 16 2020, Coinbase Chief Legal Officer begins to work at NY Fed: "Coinbase's chief legal officer, Brian Brooks, is leaving the crypto exchange to become the second in command at the U.S. Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC)". Source: https://www.coindesk.com/coinbase-chief-legal-officer-leaves-to-take-senior-role-at-us-bank-regulator
March 2020, 2020 SWIFT attempting to bring entire banking payment processing industry to IS20222 standard: "In line with that vision, SWIFT is fully committed to improving transaction data quality through ISO 20022 and will continue to accelerate industry support to adopt ISO 20022 for market infrastructure initiatives, including TARGET2 migration/ESMIG, EURO1 and Bank of England RTGS renewal. .... The end-date to enable full ISO 20022 for cross-border payments remains as originally planned, November 2025." https://www.swift.com/standards/iso-20022-programme/timeline
March 20 2020, Fed-backed digital dollar to be well received by crypto-community with digital dollar being viewed as compliment, rather than a competitor to bitcoin. Source: https://www.marketwatch.com/story/bitcoin-enthusiasts-liberal-lawmakers-cheer-a-fed-backed-digital-dollar-2020-03-30
March 23 2020, COVID 19 pandemic leads to Stimulus Bill which includes proposed digital wallets for Stimilus Bill moneys to be distributed to people who do not have bank accounts currently. Ultimately, the digital wallets section was not included in signed bills but likely will resurface again shortly. Source: https://cointelegraph.com/news/in-covid-19-stimulus-us-congress-eyes-digital-dollar-to-send-aid-to-the-unbanked
March 30 2020, Bitcoin enthusiasts, liberal lawmakers cheer a Fed-backed digital dollar. “My legislation would allow every American to set up a free bank account so they don’t have to rely on expensive check cashers to access their hard-earned money,” Sen. Brown told the American Banker. While a digital dollar didn’t make it into the final stimulus legislation, that it concept is now being taken seriously by high-profile lawmakers in Washington is another signpost on the road to a digital-money future, said Carlos Domingo, CEO of Securitize. “The question is not if a digital dollar will be created but when and how.” Source: https://www.marketwatch.com/story/bitcoin-enthusiasts-liberal-lawmakers-cheer-a-fed-backed-digital-dollar-2020-03-30.
April 5 2020, NetCents Declares Readiness for Expected US Federal Reserve "Digital Dollar". Source: https://yhoo.it/34jPL0d
April 8 2020, Marion Laboure, Macro Strategist of DeutscheBank just tweeted this. Confirmation of Big Banks making big moves. One world currency coming soon by 2025? Source: https://twitter.com/MarionLaboure/status/1241316697128214529?s=20
The Clearing House will soon launch Secure Token Exchange (STE), a service to manage token issuance and authentication for mobile and ecommerce transactions. Source: https://www.theclearinghouse.org/payment-systems/secure-token-exchange
The Clearing House confirms their new RTP network through job posting on The Clearing House career website that's aim is to provide instant access to ALL account holders inUS. From their job listing: "The The RTP® network from The Clearing House is a real-time payments platform that all federally insured U.S. depository institutions are eligible to use for payments innovation. "The goal of the system is to ultimately provide access to instant payments to every financial institution and account holder in the US. To achieve this goal, significant enhancements and expansion of the system will occur over the next 3-5 years in order to support over 10,000 financial institutions. Qualifications Desired: Money transfer experience, especially knowledge of SWIFT, FED or CHIPS payment processing and settlement" This is stated in current job opening listed under "RTP Senior Developer" at The Clearing House. Source: https://www.theclearinghouse.org/about/careers/rtp-senior-developer. Screenshot of position in case this link dissappears: https://imgur.com/wr2Zoap
submitted by DanielGONZZZ to Chainlink [link] [comments]

Gold standard? Federal Reserve?

Gold standard? End the Federal Reserve?
I'm pretty sure this has been debated before and asked a lot in this forum but pardon me being new here.
I am a history major and have been trying to read as much about economics as I can during my spare time. I'm about finished with Gregory Mankiw's Principles of Macroeconomics and plan to read his Principles of Microeconomics soon enough. I have also read Thomas Sowell's Basic Economics and am about halfway through reading Henry Hazlitt's Economics in One Lesson. I have also recently seen Milton Friedman's Free to Choose and also plan on reading his works, as well as Friedrich Hayek and Frederick Bastiat.
One of the topics I really want to delve into is in regard to the merits of having a Federal Reserve and whether it is more beneficial to go back to a gold standard. I think that there is an economic consensus that the money supply has a great correlation with the level of inflation and the value of the dollar, as the more that is printed, the more worthless the dollar becomes, and the less printed it is, the more worth it becomes. Particularly also, fiat currency tends to be valued only in, so, far, as there is confidence in the financial systems.
For this reason, there seems to be two issues and questions at hand. The first one is if it would be more beneficial to go back to a gold standard? I understand that there are various ways in which this could occur. This could include going back to the physical use of gold as money, pegging the dollar back to gold, or begging it to some other commodity such as Bitcoin. The purpose of any of these approaches is to control the money supply by something that is finite and hence limited in nature.
This seems to solve the problem of controlling the quantity of the dollar. Some have criticized the gold standard due to the overly restricted circulation of currency that has historically led to deflationary, as opposed to inflationary periods, which could be just as devastating as inflationary periods.
The second question and problem concern the Federal Reserve. To what extent is it beneficial to have a Fed? Should the Fed be reconstructed, and or more heavily regulated? Should we outright do away with the Fed? Or should the Fed be kept the way it is? On the one hand, it makes sense in theory to have an institution such as the Fed to help regulate banks, ensuring that things such as bank runs, and or banking disasters are preventing. It also seems sensible in theory to have an institution such as the Fed, which is independent of the government, to help in coordinating monetary policy.
However, in practice, it also seems that the Fed has often been the cause of such disasters such as the Great Depression and the Great Recession by creating boom and bust cycles through arbitrarily changing interest rates, and through its various tactics at influencing monetary policy and controlling the money supply. A similar, yet different issue would be laws passed by the government encouraging risky lending such as forcing financial institutions, whether private or public to give out bad loans to risky people such as those who can't afford to take the loan.
Would it not make more sense to simply let the "invisible hand" (the forces of supply and demand) to allocate the money supply and interest rates? If there is more demand for borrowing this will push interest rates up, as banks and other financial institutions would want to charge higher interests and they would ideally want to be careful as to who they are lending money to. If there is a greater demand for saving than lending, this would push interest rates down as banks would not want to give out as much money in interest and other financial institutions would want to encourage more borrowing.
I would appreciate any resource recommendations whether they be books or other media platforms that you think do a good job at tackling any of these two issues.
submitted by Crazrwire999 to economy [link] [comments]

ColossusXT Q2 2020 AMA Ends!

Thank you for being a part of the ColossusXT Q2 2020 AMA! Below we will summarize the questions and answers. The team responded to 46 questions! If your question was not included, it may have been answered in a previous question or AMA. The ColossusXT team will do a Reddit AMA at the end of every quarter.
The winner of the AMA contest is: ookhimself
Congratulations. I will send you a DM on Reddit.
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Q: Why does your blockchain exist and what makes it unique?
A: ColossusXT exists to provide an energy-efficient method of supercomputing. ColossusXT is unique in many ways. Some coins have 1 layer of privacy. ColossusXT and the Colossus Grid will utilize 2 layers of privacy through Obfuscation Zerocoin Protocol, and I2P and these will protect users of the Colossus Grid as they utilize the grid resources. There are also Masternodes and Proof of Stake which both can contribute to reducing 51% attacks, along with instant transactions and zero-fee transactions. This protection is paramount as ColossusXT evolves into the Colossus Grid. Grid Computing will have a pivotal role throughout the world, and what this means is that users will begin to experience the Internet as a seamless computational universe. Software applications, databases, sensors, video, and audio streams-all will be reborn as services that live in cyberspace, assembling, and reassembling themselves on the fly to meet the tasks at hand. Once plugged into the grid, a desktop machine will draw computational horsepower from all the other computers on the grid.
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Q: What is the Colossus Grid?
A: ColossusXT is an anonymous blockchain through obfuscation, along with utilization of I2P (Armis). These features will protect end-user privacy as ColossusXT evolves into the Colossus Grid. The Colossus Grid will connect devices in a peer-to-peer network enabling users and applications to rent the cycles and storage of other users’ machines. This marketplace of computing power and storage will exclusively run on COLX currency. These resources will be used to complete tasks requiring any amount of computation time and capacity, or allow end-users to store data anonymously across the COLX decentralized network. Today, such resources are supplied by entities such as centralized cloud providers which are constrained by closed networks, proprietary payment systems, and hard-coded provisioning operations. Any user ranging from a single PC owner to a large data center can share resources through Colossus Grid and get paid in COLX for their contributions. Renters of computing power or storage space, on the other hand, may do so at low prices compared to the usual market prices because they are only using resources that already exist.
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Q: Is there any estimated date for the grid? What will set you apart from the opposition?
A: We are hoping to have something released for the community in Q4 this year. The difference between other competitors is that ColossusXT is putting consumer privacy first and we’re actively in the process of working with federal and state agencies in the United States.
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Q: How do you plan to get people to implement the technology? At your current rate of development, when do you foresee a minimum viable product being available?
A: We have been strategically networking with businesses, and we are currently undergoing the verification process in the United States to make bids on federal and state projects. We are working on an MVP and our goal is to have at least a portion of the Colossus Grid ready by Q4 2020.
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Q: When we can expect any use-case for COLX? A company or service that uses COLX for its activities/tasks.
A: We’re aiming for Q4 of this year to have an MVP, throughout 2021 we will be strategically making bids on federal and state contracts in the United States with a goal to expand operations exponentially.
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Q: Are there any plans to be listed on the more prominent exchanges e.g binance, kraken?
A: Yes, we have applied to some of these exchanges that are considered Tier 1 or Tier 2 exchanges. Many of them upfront will tell you there are no fees associated with the listing, that is not entirely true most of the time. Regardless, have applied and are awaiting more responses as we move forward. Listing on these exchanges often requires that we cannot announce this information until ColossusXT is live on its platform.
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Q: Partnerships are the norm these days in crypto world. Which partnership would you consider feasible, if any, in order to grow the Colossus Grid project?
A: The Colossus Grid is a huge undertaking both in development and business partnerships. We are moving in both these directions strategically. One of the most important partnerships is not really a partnership but approval to bid on state and federal contracts. Working with the governments around the world will be a big part of the Colossus Grid use-case.
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Q: If the ability to annonymise coins is turned off, can CLX still be marketed as a privacy coin? Do we have a date we can start using this feature again?
A: Yes and No. It’s frustrating right now having a lack of privacy for consumers as we don’t see privacy as a feature but a right. EVERY platform online should have some levels of privacy for their consumers, especially as technology continues to evolve and bad actors continue to use your personal information for their own nefarious purposes. Obfuscation will be implemented in the coming weeks, and Armis will follow suit shortly thereafter.
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Q: When can we expect the grid to come out?
A: We are looking at releasing an MVP towards the end of the year. Stay tuned during Q3 and Q4 as we ramp on technical and business developments.
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Q: Can you tell the current budget for development work?
A: Much of the development work budget comes from Core team member's disposable income, we also use the self-funding treasury that Masternode owners vote on each month.
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Q: Will cold staking be implemented somedays? I like the model of Cardano. Hope you will implement kind of Cardano staking in our wallet. I would love the easiness.
A: ColossusXT staking has been enabled since 2017. We have calculators on the website that will estimate your average staking returns and you can join numerous pools to increase your staking power within the pools. Cold staking is on our radar and will make it into the roadmap when our budget allows us.
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Q: Which part of grid technology are you planning first to go live? Storage/RAM/CPU/GPU/all at once? Separately?
A: We will be rolling the Colossus Grid out in two phases. The first phase will be storage, and then we will roll out computing power (RAM/CPU/GPU).
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Q: Is Armis I2P technology in development testphase I mean, I have read something like that… If Armis goes live, will there be some kind of option in deskopt wallet to transfer anonymous or will every transaction be fully anonymous like e.g. monero?
A: We recently had a testing phase with the community earlier this year, there will be another test phase with community participants who sign up. If you’re interested in this stay tuned on our socials and apply when the next testing phase happens All transactions will be fully anonymous behind Armis.
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Q: What programming languate is being used for developing COLX? How well this programming language do you think is more suitable for developing crypto, in comparison with other programing languages?
A: C++ is what we’re using at ColossusXT. Each crypto project is different but with what we're developing at ColossusXT. We are best suited to utilize C++.
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Q: What is the second biggest milestone other than launching the grid network for the team. What do you think of your competition like Golem network?
A: Armis will be a big milestone, and I don’t think we go back to our Polis partnership which allows users in Europe and Mexico (they do plan to expand to the US and other countries) the ability to spend their ColossusXT (COLX) wherever Mastercard is accepted. I don’t think the Golem network is taking consumer privacy far enough, in the blockchain industry I also see a lack of drive to push adoption within the United States. This is likely due to unclear regulations right now. ColossusXT is at the forefront of these issues and we intend to lead blockchain through these somewhat murky waters.
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Q: I don’t have a lot of knowledge about crypto-technology… but are there any risks of sensitive data-hijacks through Colx infrastructure? Will the Colx-grid be available for individuals or only larger corporations, and how would one get access to the computing power?
A: There are always risks with technology. We are doing extensive testing and more testing prior to releasing anything. Consumer privacy is apart of the foundation of what we’re building at ColossusXT and we want to ensure any and all of your personal information is secure and private. As technology evolves, we will be right here evolving with it to ensure that consumer privacy protections are always in place.
The Colossus Grid will be available to anyone with a computer. You will access it through the desktop wallet.
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Q: Do you have any new exchange listings planned in the near future?
A: Yes, but unfortunately with these things, every day it’s not something we can often say before the exchange makes their own announcements. If you have certain exchanges that you prefer, do not be shy and tag us on Twitter letting us and the exchange know. You can also reach us everyday at all hours of the day and night on Discord and Telegram.
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Q: Given that Colx had no ICO, are we able to ramp development efforts in case we have potential partnership deal on the table?
A: It really depends. We strategically spend every dime we spend on development. We do not like even a single penny to be waisted, so we don’t move as fast as the projects that raised millions of dollars, but we continue moving none the less. Ramping up our development is something we are working on by securing additional funding and we’re currently working on securing funding. 😊
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Q: How is the project development advancing? What are your plans for the next 5 years and what more can we expect from ColossusXT?
A: Our development is continuing on at a steady pace, we’re looking to ramp this up over the next year as the Colossus Grid will take much of our time but we’re excited. Over the next 5 years, you can expect the Colossus Grid to be live in all forms (storage and computing power), Armis will be released and we will share many technical details on how this consumer privacy protection rivals some of the other privacy protections in the blockchain industry. We expect to be verified and approved to work with the agencies in the United States long before then as well and will be aggressively pursuing federal contracts to utilize the computing power of the Colossus Grid. In 5 years, we plan to be a key player not just in the blockchain industry, but throughout the world. If you do not know ColossusXT now, expect to in 5 years or less.
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Q: Users often care less about technology, but rather the value of the token. How do you manage to strike a balance between developing the technology and also improving the value of COLX? There are so many privacy coins now, all of them claiming to have better features that ColossusXT. Moving forward, what do the next 10 years look like for ColossusXT in navigating the wave of privacy projects coming. How can ColossusXT continue to shine in the midst of seemingly legit projects that have come to challenge ColossusXT like mimblewimble projects and Monero, Zcoin, ect.?

A: The Colossus Grid and Masternodes will have a strong relationship with each other. When the Colossus Grid goes live we expect the masternode demand to continue to rise. Masternodes are a great incentive mechanism to increase network strength and will play an important role within the Colossus Grid. The more masternodes online, the less available coins in the circulating supply; which we expect will eventually reflect ColossusXT (COLX) coin value.
Over the next 10 years, ColossusXT (COLX) will solidify itself as a key player in the blockchain industry, and outside the blockchain industry. Following our strategic business plans, we intend to be one of the first, if not the first to truly bring government and other businesses into the blockchain industry through the Colossus Grid. Armis will be our defining privacy feature, which we expect in time will begin to be adopted by other projects. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q: How have the number of Masternodes (MNs) increased/decreased over time/in the past few years? What proportion (%) of MNs actively take part in Governance? How do you see the number of MNs increasing/decreasing in the next couple of years? Is there a trend upwards or downwards?
Is there a specific number (or range) of MNs the team would like to attain ideally? Is it better to have as many MNs as possible or is there a point at which too many MNs start to have an adverse effect on the performance of the blockchain?
Hope this wasn’t too many questions in one :), Ahmed

A: The number of masternodes in the active network is more or less the same, fluctuating around 200-220. About 40% - 50% of masternodes participate actively in governance (see https://governance.colossusxt.io). We expect a number of masternodes to grow as they will have additional benefits with Colossus Grid (see business plan: http://bit.ly/COLXBPLive).
As the team had no premines, only the dev fund can be used for masternodes which is hard to maintain due to actual budget flow. It’s better to have as many masternodes as possible for the network, there is no adverse effect.
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Q: Of all the milestones that $COLX has achieved since your humble beginnings, which do you consider to be the best of it all? What achievements do you feel proud most?
A: It’s often not mentioned but I’m very proud of our partnership with PolisPay, which allows ColossusXT community members to purchase Amazon, Spotify, and other gift cards with ColossusXT (COLX) through the Polis platform. You are also able to spend your COLX anywhere Mastercard is accepted, the card is available only for EU citizens right now and the Polis team hopes to bring in other countries in the future.
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Q: There are problems that can slow down the course of a project such as the emergence of globalization, given the tighter budget, shorter implementation time requirements. My question is, How does $COLX resolve the issue?

A: Given the current situations around the world the Colossus Grid has more value than it ever has, and that value will continue to grow once we have released the Colossus Grid for consumers to share and utilize resources. You can already see from the [email protected] initiative that people are eager to share their computing resources to help researchers simulate different COVID19 simulations. We’ve always worked on a very small budget at ColossusXT starting with 0$ in funding and no pre-mine or ICO/IEO. This project was built for the community by the community, and as of lately we’ve actually been ramping up our business strategies and developments. Since we have all already worked remotely before the COVID19 pandemic, it interestingly allowed us more time to focus and achieve these goals as our day jobs allowed us to spend more time on ColossusXT.
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Q: How will you fight with regulators who are trying to stop privacy coins?

A: We have an amazing legal team at ColossusXT, and they are on top of any new law or regulation that comes out. We’re not afraid of regulators and our legal team makes sure that everything we do for ColossusXT is law-abiding. It's time the world stops looking at privacy as a feature and as a right, especially when you read about different applications and platforms using your personal DATA for their benefit. ColossusXT will continue to push this, and we're prepared to lobby this to lawmakers. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q: What type of utilities can $COLX give to users over its competitors like GOLM (computation) or STORJ (Data)?

A: The Colossus Grid has some major differences between Golem and Storj. One we’re a privacy-focused project. If you take a look at many of these applications and platforms today, in some way or another you’re giving up personal information, and/or geographic information. ColossusXT is focused on protecting consumer information, we do not look at privacy as a feature, we see privacy as a right, especially in the tech world today.
The second part of this question is that we’re currently in the verification process of registering with the United States federal and state governments so that we can legally bid on federal and state projects and work with different agencies. This will ensure that as the community members are sharing their idle resources, large corporations and businesses are using it. I’m not aware of the mentioned projects being registered in the United States or taking steps to work with the United States government.
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Q: How will computing power and storage sharing look like, for an average user (marketplace, program download)? What are you currently working on, when can we expect MVP? TY
A: The marketplace and Colossus Grid will be inside the ColossusXT desktop wallet that you currently have now. The UI/UX will change some to allow the additional settings and tabs that will become available and we’re preparing an MVP right now and we hope to share those details with you over the next few months, ask us again in the Q3 AMA if you haven’t seen anything yet :)
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Q: What would you say is the $COLX killer feature that sets it apart from the rest of the competition.
A: We believe that Armis is our killer feature. We recently had a beta this year with the community and will be moving forward later this year with Armis. ColossusXT consumers will have their geographic location and IP fully hidden behind the Armis layer for further security and anonymity for the transactions which will also take place in the Colossus Grid resource marketplace in the future.
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Q: I have been a silent follower of $COLX and I must say that I'm truly impressed with how the team has been diligently working on the project. It'd be nice to have the community be part of something like a bounty or a social awareness contest. As this will not only attract more users to the platform but would also strengthen the bond within the community. When can we possibly expect a community project of this level? #spreadthegrid
A: We currently have a Gleam competition ongoing for social awareness, and we just hired a community manager to spread more community awareness and will be rolling on competitions more regularly. Every quarter we have an AMA on Reddit for the community to ask questions, or just gripe at us, and one person each quarter is awarded 100,000 COLX for participating in the AMA. As we deliver our targets and grow, we will shift more funds from development funds to marketing funds to raise further awareness.
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Q: "Our main competitor is crypto adoption. We are all here to make it happen together.", this is quoted from a founder of a known crypto wallet. Do you see competition as something that strengthens the project as a whole or as a possible distraction due to pressure to be at the top of the crypto ecosystem?

A: This is a two scenario situation. Competition is good for ColossusXT, and we look at our main competitor in blockchain as Golem (GNT), having said that though too much competition or sometimes maximalist behavior isn’t good for crypto, many of these projects should be coming together to lobby lawmakers for laws and regulations that are good for the blockchain industry, as this is still an emerging market and the laws and regulations aren’t exactly in place at this time.
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Q: "For people to believe in crypto, they need to understand the tangible benefits it offers to our society.", a remark made by a crypto project in the past. What exactly would be $COLX real life global benefits? And how do you plan on achieving this?
A: ColossusXT vision will be achievable when the Colossus Grid is released. We are currently in the process of registering with state and federal agencies in the United States, once we are registered to work with these agencies we will pursue contracts with the government, cybersecurity firms and colleges all around the United States, and the world to utilize the resources on the Colossus Grid. We’ve already started building business relationships for this very purpose.
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Q: According to you how much time will it take for $COLX to get into mainstream adoption and execute all the plans set for this project?
A: It’s almost impossible to set a timeline on when the world/people will begin to adopt ColossusXT (COLX) and the Colossus Grid. We don’t believe that adoption for ColossusXT will happen before the Colossus Grid is live, and if I gave you an exact timeline for when or how long it will take you for the Colossus Grid to be adopted I would be lying to you, but we are already forming business relationships and making strategic moves to be able to bid, and work with state and federal agencies in the United States.
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Q: Does Tokens.net plan any kind of staking ($COLX or other coins)?
A: We will reach out to the tokens.net team and see if they have any plans to allow staking.
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Q: How will you try to boost adoption of #COLX, how do you think you will motivate programmers to join opensource project?
A: The Colossus Grid will be available for anyone to use, or share their idle resources for other consumers to use. We will be focusing on providing these resources to state and federal governments, cybersecurity firms, and researchers all across the world. Certainly, we expect some community members to use these resources to mine different PoW cryptocurrencies, but the team at ColossusXT will be focused on bringing in large colleges and universities as well as big cybersecurity businesses that may need supercomputing power at 1/10th of the current prices. Our programmers are our only paid team members, and we pay them at a competitive rate. We’re looking to bring in some more programmers later this year.
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Q: Do you have any special development funds for programmers?
A: Sometimes we pay our programmers out of our own pocket, sometimes we pay them in ColossusXT. It really depends on what kind of agreements have been made. We have been aggressively pursuing different funding opportunities throughout 2020 so that we can expand our development team and in the future, we may have incentives to drive programmers into joining our team. Right now we just stick to a competitive pay scale within the industry.
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Q: Why Android Wallet Revision hasn't been done? Any problems?
A: The Android wallet revision took some time to be approved in the Google Playstore, but it has been released and live since June 15, 2020.
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Q: Whats the second biggest milestone other than the grid network for COLX team?
A: Armis is likely to be considered our second biggest milestone this year, although as I mentioned above this can easily be overshadowed by our Polis partnership which allows you to spend ColossusXT (COLX) anywhere Mastercard is accepted. Although the epay debit card ownership is currently restricted to certain countries (EU zone only), these restrictions will lift in time.
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Q: How is COLX team going to contribute to crypto adoption, other than building a robust network?
A: We’re already in the process of verification to work with state and federal agencies. Adoption for blockchain projects isn’t going to move fast. I read a report just a few days ago about how scammers in the crypto industry stole over 2 million dollars worth of crypto just from the “Elon Musk” impersonations on Twitter.
We will continue to build our network, and seek out state and federal agencies as well as private cybersecurity firms that can utilize the Colossus Grid, we’re not just focused on making noise on social media, we intend to make noise throughout the entire world.
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Q: Are their industry partners to COLX that are awaiting your network to go live?
A: Yes, although I hesitate to go into too much detail here. We are talking with business leaders.
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Q: The ongoing crisis affected the market badly, making many projects far from their targets. What is $COLX strategy in order to survive and pass through this crisis?
A: I agree it affected the market badly, especially the projects that raised hundreds of millions of dollars in crypto and held it through the entire market correction. ColossusXT strategy is different from those affected, we’ve always had a smaller budget than these large projects. We spend the money we have available very wisely, and we’re not in a hurry to grab something that sounds good without doing our due diligence. We make our moves very strategically.
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Q: I gotta ask, what made $COLX decide to get listed on Tokens.net? What beneficial advantage does $COLX get in doing so? How about Tokens.net?
A: Tokens.Net is one of the best exchanges ColossusXT is listed at the moment in comparison to others in terms of volume.
  1. Tokens.net is one of the most secure and transparent exchanges out there, registered in the UK.
  2. The team behind the exchange has deep roots in the crypto/blockchain space, it was co-founded by Damian Merlak, a crypto-pioneer and co-founder of Bitstamp.
  3. Tokens.net provides free auto-trading tool / Market Making Bot. Their Dynamic Trading Rights concept adds transparency to trading volumes.
  4. They allow the community voting option of only truly decentralized projects after a thorough screening.
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Q: Hey everyone! What is the main purpose of the coin $COLX, does it have its own chain or is it some sort of an ERC-20 token? Thank you for the answers.
A: ColossusXT has never been an ERC-20 coin. We have been operating on our own mainnet since 2017. The purpose of ColossusXT (COLX) is to be the native currency of the Colossus Grid. This will allow users to share their idle resources on their computers, and consumers will rent/buy those resources to complete whatever they intend to use them for, from processing large DATA to running scientific simulations, to even mining PoW cryptocurrencies.
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Q: When we can expect any usecase for COLX? A company or service that uses colx for its activities / tasks.
A: There are currently use cases now if your location allows you to utilize the Polis Pay app, or if you have a Polis Pay card you can buy things with ColossusXT (COLX). I myself have tested the card buying gas at a gas station. These are not ColossusXT’s primary focus though and much of our use case will not start until the Colossus Grid is live.
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Q: What pairs will colx have to trade with on tokens.net // Will you connect #COLX with USDT EURS or BTC?
A: ColossusXT will be initially paired with Bitcoin (BTC). If the community would like different pairs, they can certainly request them and we will reach out to tokens.net and work to facilitate requests.
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Q: Will you try to convince users to trade on tokens.net if so how will you do it?
A: There is currently a gleam competition for users to sign up and trade on tokens.net. We “shill” tokens.net accordingly through social media to the ColossusXT community, but can’t really convince anyone to use a certain exchange, although we will try to push as many members to tokens.net as we can. We have many masternode holders who reside in the United States and they are not yet allowed to trade on tokens.net.
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Q: How will you try to create liquidity for your pairs?
A: We would like to increase the adoption rate with real-world partnerships such as our partnership with PolisPay for the use of gift/debit cards. As the liquidity is linked with the use cases, supply/demand mechanics, we are also preparing to provide additional use cases of COLX for the crypto world in an innovative & pioneering way; for the time being, we can hint this as a side business till we deliver fully operational Colossus Grid.
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Q: How big is a development team of #COLX?
A: The ColossusXT team is probably bigger than some people realize, partly because many of the team members are very private. We have 9 core members, 2 in-house developers, 3 Colossus Grid architects, and 2 Colossus Grid developers.
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Q: Do you have some security guys in the team?
A: Yes, although I’m hesitant to share too many personal details about team members. We have core team members who have been working in different fields of IT security for several years.
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Q: Since #COLX is planning on having some sort of a marketplace where you can take advantage of computing resources and the blockchain as well, are there any plans on introducing smart contracts? Will it help the grid? Is there a place for it?
A: This has been mentioned a few times in the past so it’s something on our radar, it’s currently not in the development timeline as the Colossus Grid is a massive amount of work. There may be a place for it as the blockchain industry evolves, and I can certainly see some cases where a smart contract can add some value to the Colossus Grid.
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Important Information:
Website
Whitepaper
Roadmap
Business Plan
Wiki
Governance
Partners
GitHub
What is ColossusXT? (YouTube)
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Follow ColossusXT on:
Twitter
Facebook
Telegram
Discord
Forums
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AMA History:
2018 Q1 2018 Q2 2018 Q3 2018 Q4
2019 Q1 2019 Q2 2019 Q3 2019 Q4
2020 Q1
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Gold standard? Federal Reserve?

I'm sorry if these two topics have already been heavily asked about in this forum. I am new to this forum and am trying to understand these issues better.
Gold standard? End the Federal Reserve?
I am a history major and have been trying to read as much about economics as I can during my spare time. I'm about finished with Gregory Mankiw's Principles of Macroeconomics and plan to read his Principles of Microeconomics soon enough. I have also read Thomas Sowell's Basic Economics and am about halfway through reading Henry Hazlitt's Economics in One Lesson. I have also recently seen Milton Friedman's Free to Choose and also plan on reading his works, as well as Friedrich Hayek and Frederick Bastiat.
One of the topics I really want to delve into is in regard to the merits of having a Federal Reserve and whether it is more beneficial to go back to a gold standard. I think that there is an economic consensus that the money supply has a great correlation with the level of inflation and the value of the dollar, as the more that is printed, the more worthless the dollar becomes, and the less printed it is, the more worth it becomes. Particularly also, fiat currency tends to be valued only in, so, far, as there is confidence in the financial systems.
For this reason, there seems to be two issues and questions at hand. The first one is if it would be more beneficial to go back to a gold standard? I understand that there are various ways in which this could occur. This could include going back to the physical use of gold as money, pegging the dollar back to gold, or begging it to some other commodity such as Bitcoin. The purpose of any of these approaches is to control the money supply by something that is finite and hence limited in nature.
This seems to solve the problem of controlling the quantity of the dollar. Some have criticized the gold standard due to the overly restricted circulation of currency that has historically led to deflationary, as opposed to inflationary periods, which could be just as devastating as inflationary periods.
The second question and problem concern the Federal Reserve. To what extent is it beneficial to have a Fed? Should the Fed be reconstructed, and or more heavily regulated? Should we outright do away with the Fed? Or should the Fed be kept the way it is? On the one hand, it makes sense in theory to have an institution such as the Fed to help regulate banks, ensuring that things such as bank runs, and or banking disasters are preventing. It also seems sensible in theory to have an institution such as the Fed, which is independent of the government, to help in coordinating monetary policy.
However, in practice, it also seems that the Fed has often been the cause of such disasters such as the Great Depression and the Great Recession by creating boom and bust cycles through arbitrarily changing interest rates, and through its various tactics at influencing monetary policy and controlling the money supply. A similar, yet different issue would be laws passed by the government encouraging risky lending such as forcing financial institutions, whether private or public to give out bad loans to risky people such as those who can't afford to take the loan.
Would it not make more sense to simply let the "invisible hand" (the forces of supply and demand) to allocate the money supply and interest rates? If there is more demand for borrowing this will push interest rates up, as banks and other financial institutions would want to charge higher interests and they would ideally want to be careful as to who they are lending money to. If there is a greater demand for saving than lending, this would push interest rates down as banks would not want to give out as much money in interest and other financial institutions would want to encourage more borrowing.
I would appreciate any resource recommendations whether they be books or other media platforms that you think do a good job at tackling any of these two issues.
submitted by Crazrwire999 to AskEconomics [link] [comments]

The Intellectual Foundation of Bitcoin比特幣的智識基礎. By Chapman Chen, HKBNews

The Intellectual Foundation of Bitcoin比特幣的智識基礎. By Chapman Chen, HKBNews

https://preview.redd.it/w6v3l8n3zxu41.jpg?width=2551&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=fb0338a36a1a321d3781f43ff5eb6929d8b92edc
Summary: Bitcoin was invented by the anonymous Satoshi Nakamoto as recently as 2008, but it is backed up by a rich intellectual foundation. For instance, The 1776 First Amendment separates church and state, and contemporary American liberation psychologist Nozomi Hayase (2020) argues that money and state should similarly be separated. Just as Isaac Newton’s study of alchemy gave rise to the international gold standard, so has the anonymous creator Satoshi Nakamoto's desire for a “modernized gold standard” given rise to Bitcoin. Indeed, Bloomberg's 2020 report confirms Bitcoin to be gold 2.0. Montesquieu (1774) asserted that laws that secure inalienable rights can only be found in Nature, and the natural laws employed in Bitcoin include its consensus algorithm and the three natural laws of economics (self-interest, competition, and supply and demand). J.S. Mill (1859) preferred free markets to those controlled by governments. Ludwig von Mises (1951) argued against the hazards of fiat currency, urging for a return to the gold standard. Friedrich Hayek (1984) suggested people to invent a sly way to take money back from the hands of the government. Milton Friedman (1994) called for FED to be replaced by an automatic system and predicted the coming of a reliable e-cash. James Buchanan (1988) advocated a monetary constitution to constrain the governmental power of money creation. Tim May (1997) the cypherpunk proclaimed that restricting digital cash impinges on free speech, and envisioned a stateless digital form of money that is uncensorable. The Tofflers (2006) pictured a non-monetary economy. In 2016, UCLA Professor of Finance Bhagwan Chowdhry even nominated Satoshi for a Nobel Prize.
Full Text:
Separation between money and state
The 1791 First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution enshrines free speech and separates church and state, but not money and state. "Under the First Amendment, individuals’ right to create, choose their own money and transact freely was not recognized as a part of freedom of expression that needs to be protected," Japanese-American liberation psychologist Nozomi Hayase (2020) points out (1).
The government, banks and corporations collude together to encroach upon people's liberties by metamorphosing their inalienable rights into a permissioned from of legal rights. Fiat currencies function as a medium of manipulation, indulging big business to generate market monopolies. "Freedom of expression has become further stifled through economic censorship and financial blockage enacted by payment processing companies like Visa and MasterCard," to borrow Hayase's (2020) words.
Satoshi is a Modern Newton
Although most famous for discovering the law of gravity, Isaac Newton was also a practising alchemist. He never managed to turn lead into gold, but he did find a way to transmute silver into gold. In 1717, Newton announced in a report that, based on his studies, one gold guinea coin weighed 21 shillings. Just as Isaac Newton’s study of alchemy gave rise to the international gold standard, so has the desire for a “modernized gold standard” given rise to Bitcoin. "In a way, Satoshi is a modern Newton. They both believed trust is best placed in the unchangeable facets of our economy. Beneath this belief is the assumption that each individual is their own best master," as put by Jon Creasy (2019) (2).
J.S. Mill: free markets preferable to those controlled by governments
John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) the great English philosopher would be a Bitcoiner were he still around today. In On Liberty (1859), Mill concludes that free markets are preferable to those controlled by governments. He argues that economies function best when left to their own devices. Therefore, government intervention, though theoretically permissible, would be counterproductive. Bitcoin is precisely decentralized or uncontrolled by the government, unconfiscatable, permissonless, and disinflationary. Bitcoin regulates itself spontaneously via the ordinary operations of the system. "Rules are enforced without applying any external pressure," in Hayase's (2020) words.
Ludwig von Mises (1958): Liberty is always Freedom from the Government
In The Free Market and its Enemies, theoretical Austrian School economist Ludwig von Mises (1951) argues against the hazards of fiat currency, urging for a return to the gold standard. “A fiat money system cannot go on forever and must one day come to an end,” Von Mises states. The solution is a return to the gold standard, "the only standard which makes the determination of the purchasing power of money independent of the changing ideas of political parties, governments, and pressure groups" under present conditions. Interestingly, this is also one of the key structural attributes of Bitcoin, the world’s first, global, peer-to-peer, decentralized value transfer network.
Actually, Bloomberg's 2020 report on Bitcoin confirms that it is gold 2.0. (3)
Von Mises prefers the price of gold to be determined according to the contemporaneous market conditions. The bitcoin price is, of course, determined across the various global online exchanges, in real-time. There is no central authority setting a spot price for gold after the which the market value is settled on among the traders during the day.
Hayek: Monopoly on Currency should End
Austrian-British Nobel laureate Friedrich Hayek’s theory in his 1976 work, Denationalization of Money, was that not only would the currency monopoly be taken away from the government, but that the monopoly on currency itself should end with multiple alternative currencies competing for acceptance by consumers, in order "to prevent the bouts of acute inflation and deflation which have played the world for the past 60 years." He forcefully argues that if there is no free competition between different currencies within any nation, then there will be no free market. Bitcoin is, again, decentralized, and many other cryptocurrencies have tried to compete with it, though in vain.
In a recently rediscovered video clip from 1984, Hayek actually suggested people to invent a cunning way to take money out of the hands of the government:- “I don’t believe we shall ever have a good money again before we take the thing out of the hands of government, that is, we can’t take them violently out of the hands of government, all we can do is by some sly roundabout way introduce something they can’t stop” (4). Reviewing those words 36 years hence and it is difficult not to interpret them in the light of Bitcoin.
Milton Friedman Called for FED to be Replaced by an Automatic System
Nobel laureate economist Milton Friedman (1994) was critical of the Federal Reserve due to its poor performance and felt it should be abolished (5). Friedman (1999) believed that the Federal Reserve System should ultimately be replaced with a computer program, which makes us think of the computer code governing Bitcoin (6).[\](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Criticism_of_the_Federal_Reserve#cite_note-:2-12) He (1970) favored a system that would automatically buy and sell securities in response to changes in the money supply. This, he argued, would put a lid on inflation, setting spending and investment decisions on a surer footing (7). Bitcoin is exactly disflationary as its maximum possible supply is 21 million and its block reward or production rate is halved every four years.
Friedman passed away before the coming of bitcoin, but he lived long enough to see the Internet’s spectacular rise throughout the 1990s. “I think that the Internet is going to be one of the major forces for reducing the role of government," said Friedman in a 1999 interview with NTU/F. On the same occasion, he sort of predicted the emergence of Bitcoin, "The one thing that’s missing, but that will soon be developed, is a reliable e-cash, a method whereby on the Internet you can transfer funds from A to B, without A knowing B or B knowing A." (8)
Of course, Friedman didnt predict the block chain, summed up American libertarian economist Jeffery Tucker (2014). “But he was hoping for a trustless system. He saw the need. (9).
Bitcoin Computer Code as Constitution in the Buchananian Sense
American economist cum Nobel laureate James Buchanan (1988) advocates constitutional constraints on the governmental power to create money (10). Buchanan distinguishes a managed monetary system—a system “that embodies the instrumental use of price-level predictability as a norm of policy”—from an automatic monetary system, “which does not, at any stage, involve the absolute price level” (Buchanan 1962, 164–65). Leaning toward the latter, Buchanan argues that automatic systems are characterized by an organization “of the institutions of private decision-making in such a way that the desired monetary predictability will emerge spontaneously from the ordinary operations of the system” (Buchanan 1962, 164). Again, "Bitcoin regulates itself through the spontaneous force of nature, flourishing healthy price discovery and competition in the best interest of everyone" (Hayase 2020).
Shruti Rajagopalan (2018) argues that the computer code governing how the sundry nodes/computers within the Bitcoin network interact with one another is a kind of monetary constitution in the Buchananian sense. One of Buchanan's greatest inputs is to differentiate the choice of rules from the choice within rule (Buchanan 1990). One may regard the Bitcoin code as a sort of constitution and "the Bitcoin network engaging in both the choice of rules and choice within rules" (Rajagopalan 2018) (11).
Tim May: Restricting Digital Cash may Impinge on Free Speech
Cypherpunks are activists who since the 1980s have advocated global use of strong cryptography and privacy-enhancing technologies as a route to social and political liberation. Tim May (Timothy C. May [1951-2018]), one of the influential cypherpunks published The Crypto Anarchist Manifesto in September 1992, which foretold the coming of Bitcoin (12). Cypherpunks began envisioning a stateless digital form of money that cannot be censored and their collaborative pursuit created a movement akin to the 18th Enlightenment.
At The 7th Conference on Computers, Freedom, and Privacy, Burlingame, CA. in 1997, Tim May equated money with speech, and argued that restricting digital cash may impinge on free speech, for spending money is often a matter of communicating orders to others, to transfer funds, to release funds, etc. In fact, most financial instruments are contracts or orders, instead of physical specie or banknotes (13).
Montesquieu: Laws that secure inalienable rights can only be found in Nature
In his influential work The Spirit of Laws (1748), Montesquieu wrote, “Laws ... are derived from the nature of things … Law, like mathematics, has its objective structure, which no arbitrary whim can alter". Similarly, once a block is added to the end of the Bitcoin blockchain, it is almost impossible to go back and alter the contents of the block, unless every single block after it on the blockchain is altered, too.
Cypherpunks knew that whereas alienable rights that are bestowed by law can be deprived by legislation, inalienable rights are not to be created but can be discovered by reason. Thus, laws that secure inalienable rights cannot be created by humankind but can be found in nature.
The natural laws employed in Bitcoin to enshrine the inalienable monetary right of every human being include its consensus algorithm, and the three natural laws of economics (self-interest, competition, and supply and demand) as identified by Adam Smith, father of modern economics.
Regarding mathematics, bitcoin mining is performed by high-powered computers that solve complex computational math problems. When computers solve these complex math problems on the Bitcoin network, they produce new bitcoin. And by solving computational math problems, bitcoin miners make the Bitcoin payment network trustworthy and secure, by verifying its transaction information.
Regarding economic laws, in accordance with the principle of game theory to generate fairness, miners take part in an open competition. Lining up self-interests of all in a network, with a vigilant balance of risk and rewards, rules are put in force sans the application of any exterior pressure. "Bitcoin regulates itself through the spontaneous force of nature, flourishing healthy price discovery and competition in the best interest of everyone," to borrow the words of Hayase (2020).
A Non-monetary Economy as Visualized by the Tofflers
In their book, Revolutionary Wealth (2006), futurists Alvin Toffler and his wife Heidi Toffler toy with the concept of a world sans money, raising a third kind of economic transaction that is neither one-on-one barter nor monetary exchange. In the end, they settle on the idea that the newer non-monetary economy will exist shoulder-to-shoulder with the monetary sector in the short term, although the latter may eventually be eclipsed by the former in the long run. What both the Tofflers' The Third Wave (1980) and Revolutionary Wealth bring into question is the very premise of monetary exchange. The vacuum left over by cash in such a non-monetary economy may be filled up by Bitcoin as a cryptocurrency.
Satoshi Nakamoto Nominated for Nobel Prize by UCLA Finance Prof.
UCLA Anderson School Professor of Finance Bhagwan Chowdhry nominated Satoshi Nakamoto for the 2016 Nobel Prize in Economics on the following grounds:-
It is secure, relying on almost unbreakable cryptographic code, can be divided into millions of smaller sub-units, and can be transferred securely and nearly instantaneously from one person to any other person in the world with access to internet bypassing governments, central banks and financial intermediaries such as Visa, Mastercard, Paypal or commercial banks eliminating time delays and transactions costs.... Satoshi Nakamoto’s Bitcoin Protocol has spawned exciting innovations in the FinTech space by showing how many financial contracts — not just currencies — can be digitized, securely verified and stored, and transferred instantaneously from one party to another (14).
Fb link: https://www.facebook.com/hongkongbilingualnews/posts/947121432392288?__tn__=-R
Web link: https://www.hkbnews.net/post/the-intellectual-foundation-of-bitcoin%E6%AF%94%E7%89%B9%E5%B9%A3%E7%9A%84%E6%99%BA%E8%AD%98%E5%9F%BA%E7%A4%8E-by-chapman-chen-hkbnews
Disclaimer: This article is neither an advertisement nor professional financial advice.
End-notes
  1. https://bitcoinmagazine.com/articles/bitcoin-is-the-technology-of-dissent-that-secures-individual-liberties
  2. https://medium.com/hackernoon/why-sir-isaac-newton-was-the-first-bitcoin-maximalist-195a17cb6c34
  3. https://data.bloomberglp.com/professional/sites/10/Bloomberg-Crypto-Outlook-April-2020.pdf
  4. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EYhEDxFwFRU&t=1161s
  5. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m6fkdagNrjI
  6. http://youtu.be/mlwxdyLnMXM
  7. https://miltonfriedman.hoover.org/friedman_images/Collections/2016c21/IEA_1970.pdf
  8. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6MnQJFEVY7s
  9. https://www.coindesk.com/economist-milton-friedman-predicted-bitcoin
  10. https://www.aier.org/research/prospects-for-a-monetary-constitution/
  11. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3238472
  12. https://www.activism.net/cypherpunk/crypto-anarchy.html
  13. http://osaka.law.miami.edu/~froomkin/articles/tcmay.htm
  14. https://www.huffpost.com/entry/i-shall-happily-accept-th_b_8462028
Pic credit: Framingbitcoin
#bitcoin #bitcoinhalving #jamesBuchanan #MiltonFriedman #AlvinToffler #FirstAmendment #LudwigVonMises #TimMay #freeMarket # SatoshiNakamoto #FriedrichHayek #Cypherpunk #Cryptocurrency #GoldStandard #IsaacNewton
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Daily Crypto Brief for Friday, June 26, 2020.

This is your ITB Media Daily Crypto Brief for Friday, June 26, 2020.
In Mainstream Financial News.
CNBC reports: Here’s what a new SEC chair could mean for crypto, according to Bitcoin investor Michael Novogratz
A potential change at the top of United States’ main securities regulator could be a good thing for cryptocurrencies, investor Michael Novogratz said on Monday.

Bloomberg Headline: Lobbyist Jack Abramoff Charged in CryptoCurrency Case, U.S. Says
Jack Abramoff, the onetime Washington insider who went to prison in a lobbying scandal, was charged by the U.S. with illegally lobbying for a fraudulent cryptocurrency project. Abramoff has agreed to plead guilty to conspiracy and violating the Lobbying Disclosure Act and faces as long as five years in prison, according to a court filing and U.S. Attorney David Anderson in San Francisco.

The Asia Times Reports: Australians can pay for bitcoin at post office
Australians Can Now Pay for Bitcoin at 3,500 Australia Post Offices. Australian residents can now pay for bitcoin at more than 3,500 national post offices. The new service launched by Bitcoin.com.au is aimed at promoting cryptocurrencies to mainstream audiences, alongside established businesses and organizations.

Wall Street Journal Headline: Lobbyist Jack Abramoff Charged With Fraud
On June 25th, 2020, lobbyist Jack Abramoff and CEO Roland Marcus Andrade were charged in San Francisco federal court with fraud in connection with a $5 million cryptocurrancy deal. Abramoff has agreed to a negotiated plea of guilty.

Forbes Headline: Legendary Investor Jim Rogers Warns Governments Will Have To ‘Eliminate’ Bitcoin
Bitcoin has made its fair share of enemies since it was created a little over ten years ago. ... Now, legendary investor Jim Rogers has warned bitcoin and similar "virtual currencies beyond the influence of the government" will not be allowed to survive—and said the bitcoin price is headed to zero.

In Crypto Publications headlines.

Bitcoin Dropping to $6K ‘Golden Pocket’ Isn’t Bearish, Says Trader by Cointelegraph
Bitcoin (BTC) could crash to $6,000 and still remain bullish, one trader claimed on June 26 as the largest cryptocurrency tested $9,000 support. In a Twitter analysis, the popular trader known as SteveCrypt0 offered an alternative to the bearish sentiment coming from markets this week. Trader: $6K is “healthy correction”

Trio of Bitcoin Tokens Lures DeFi Yield Farmers to New Pastures by CoinDesk

To recap, Synthetix is a platform for minting and exchanging synthetic tokens that mirror the price of other assets. On June 19, Synthetix joined the Ren Project and BitGo in creating a pool of bitcoin-backed tokens, for smooth liquidity between three crypto products that should be all but interchangeable. Plus, each of the DeFi platforms is promising token rewards in order to get more participation in the pool. This pool of sBTC, renBTC and WBTC lives on Curve, an automated market maker that has extremely low price slippage thanks in part to its specialization in stablecoins.

CryptoNews reports on its front page: Blockchain Game Firm Releases Samsung Phone Featuring a Crypto Wallet
Samsung has released three special-edition Galaxy smartphones in conjunction with WeMade Tree, the blockchain arm of South Korean gaming giant WeMade. The devices are customized versions of the Samsung Galaxy S20, S20+ and S20 Ultra, but come pre-loaded with WeMade Tree’s Wemix cryptocurrency wallet. According to a sales platform created for the phones, the most expensive of the three devices is priced at USD 1,329. This has been your ITB Media Daily Crypto Brief for Friday, June 26, 2020.
submitted by Gigantile to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

[Part - 33] Large college ebooks/eTextbooks thread for cheap rates [$4 to $25]

  1. Experiencing MIS, 8th Edition: David M. Kroenke & Randall J. Boyle
  2. Mosby's Canadian Manual of Diagnostic and Laboratory Tests, 2nd Edition: Sandra A. Pike-MacDonald & Kathleen Deska Pagana & Timothy J. Pagana
  3. The Developing Child, 13th Edition: Helen Bee & Denise Boyd
  4. The Law of Health Care Finance and Regulation (Aspen Select), 4th Edition: Mark A. Hall & Nicholas Bagley & David Orentlicher
  5. The New Rules of Marketing and PR, 6th Edition: David Meerman Scott
  6. A Project Manager's Book of Tools and Techniques, 1st Edition: Cynthia Snyder Dionisio
  7. The Oxford Handbook of Eating Disorders, 2nd Edition: W. Stewart Agras & Athena Robinson
  8. Elementary Linear Algebra: Applications Version, 12th Australia and New Zealand Edition: Howard Anton & Chris Rorres & Anton Kaul
  9. The Mindful Nurse: Using the Power of Mindfulness and Compassion to Help You Thrive in Your Work: Carmel Sheridan
  10. High-Acuity Nursing, 7th Edition: Kathleen Wagner & Melanie Hardin-Pierce & Darlene Welsh
  11. Architectural Drafting and Design, 7th Edition: Alan Jefferis & David A. Madsen & David P. Madsen
  12. Social Psychology: The Science of Everyday Life, 2nd Edition: Jeff Greenberg & Toni Schmader & Jamie Arndt & Mark Landau
  13. A Project Manager's Book of Forms: A Companion to the PMBOK Guide, 3rd Edition: Cynthia Snyder Dionisio
  14. Race and Human Diversity: A Biocultural Approach, 2nd Edition: Robert L. Anemone
  15. Advocacy: Championing Ideas and Influencing Others, 1st Edition: John A. Daly
  16. Essential Genetics and Genomics, 7th Edition: Daniel L. Hartl
  17. Strategies for Teaching Students with Learning and Behavior Problems, 9th Edition: Sharon R. Vaughn & Candace S. Bos
  18. Zero Bone Loss Concepts, 1st Edition: Tomas Linkevicius
  19. Understanding Our Universe, 3rd Edition: Stacy Palen & Laura Kay & George Blumenthal
  20. Materials for Civil and Construction Engineers, 4th Edition: Michael S. Mamlouk & John P. Zaniewski
  21. The Oxford Handbook of Reproductive Ethics, 1st Edition: Leslie Francis
  22. Worldwide Destinations: The geography of travel and tourism, 7th Edition: Brian Boniface & Robyn Cooper & Chris Cooper
  23. Experiencing the Lifespan, 5th Edition: Janet Belsky
  24. Fast Facts for the Student Nurse: Nursing Student Success in a Nutshell, 1st Edition: Susan Stabler-Haas
  25. Multivariable Calculus, 8th Edition: James Stewart
  26. Sex and Gender: An Introduction, 6th Edition: Hilary M. Lips
  27. A Stata® Companion to Political Analysis, 4th Edition: Philip H. Pollock & Barry C. Edwards
  28. Marketing: The Core, 8th Edition: Roger Kerin & Steven Hartley
  29. Sports Marketing, 2nd Edition: Michael J. Fetchko & Donald P. Roy & Kenneth E. Clow
  30. An Introduction to Family Social Work, 4th Edition: Donald Collins & Catheleen Jordan & Heather Coleman
  31. Elementary Statistics, 3rd Edition: William Navidi & Barry Monk
  32. Clinical Calculations: With Applications to General and Specialty Areas, 8th Edition: Joyce LeFever Kee & Sally M. Marshall
  33. Animal Physiology, 4th Edition: Richard W. Hill & Gordon A. Wyse & Margaret Anderson
  34. Essentials of Rehabilitation Research: A Statistical Guide to Clinical Practice, 1st Edition: Richard P Di Fabio
  35. Religious Nationalism: A Reference Handbook: Atalia Omer & Jason Springs
  36. Defensive Security Handbook: Best Practices for Securing Infrastructure, 1st Edition: Lee Brotherston & Amanda Berlin
  37. Clinical Case Formulations, 2nd Edition: Barbara Lichner Ingram
  38. Urban Tantra: Sacred Sex for the Twenty-First Century, 2nd Edition: Barbara Carrellas & Annie Sprinkle
  39. Government and Not-for-Profit Accounting: Concepts and Practices, 8th Edition: Michael H. Granof & Saleha B. Khumawala & Thad D. Calabrese & Daniel L. Smith
  40. How to Do Systems Analysis: Primer and Casebook, 1st Edition: John E. Gibson & William T. Scherer & William F. Gibson
  41. U.S. Central Americans: Reconstructing Memories, Struggles, and Communities of Resistance, 1st Edition: Karina Oliva Alvarado & Alicia Ivonne Estrada & Ester E. Hernández
  42. Principles of Electronic Materials and Devices, 4th Edition: Safa Kasap
  43. LogixPro PLC Lab Manual w/ CD-ROM, 4th Edition: Frank Petruzella
  44. South-Western Federal Taxation 2020: Corporations, Partnerships, Estates and Trusts, 43rd Edition: William A. Raabe & James C. Young & William H. Hoffman
  45. Social Psychology: Goals in Interaction, 7th Edition: Douglas Kenrick & Steven L. Neuberg & Robert B. Cialdini
  46. Fundamentals of Corporate Finance, 10th Edition: Richard Brealey & Stewart Myers & Alan Marcus
  47. Molecular Biology, 3rd Edition: David P. Clark & Nanette J. Pazdernik & Michelle R. McGehee
  48. The Rorschach: Basic Foundations and Principles of Interpretation, Volume 1, 4th Edition: John E. Exner
  49. Docker in Action, 2nd Edition: Jeff Nickoloff & Stephen Kuenzli
  50. Evolution: Making Sense of Life, 3rd Edition: Douglas J. Emlen & Carl Zimmer
  51. Herpetology, 4th Edition: F. Harvey Pough & Robin M. Andrews & Martha L. Crump
  52. Research Methods in Criminal Justice and Criminology, 1st Edition: Callie Marie Rennison & Timothy Christopher Hart
  53. The Meaning of Difference: American Constructions of Race, Sex and Gender, Social Class, Sexual Orientation, and Disability, 7th Edition: Karen Rosenblum
  54. Research Methods in Health Promotion, 2nd Edition: Laura F. Salazar & Richard A. Crosby & Ralph J. DiClemente
  55. The Psychology of Thinking: Reasoning, Decision-Making and Problem-Solving, 1st Edition: John P. Minda
  56. Nutrition Essentials: A Personal Approach, 2nd Edition: Wendy J Schiff
  57. Chemical, Biochemical, and Engineering Thermodynamics, 5th Edition: Stanley I. Sandler
  58. Parenting: A Dynamic Perspective, 2nd Edition: George W. Holden
  59. Managerial Accounting, 4th Edition: Karen W. Braun & Wendy M. Tietz
  60. Basics of Web Design: HTML5 & CSS, 5th Edition: Terry Felke-Morris
  61. The Essentials of Political Analysis, 6th Edition: Philip H. Pollock III & Barry C. Edwards
  62. Leadership and Management for Nurses: Core Competencies for Quality Care, 3rd Edition: Anita Finkelman
  63. Urban Ecology (Ecological Reviews), 1st Edition: Kevin J. Gaston
  64. Nutrition & You, 5th Edition: Joan Salge Blake
  65. Principles of Turbomachinery, 2nd Edition: Seppo A. Korpela
  66. Accounting For Managers: Interpreting Accounting Information for Decision–Making, 4th Edition: Paul M. Collier
  67. Computer Networks, 5th Edition: Andrew S. Tanenbaum & David J. Wetherall
  68. Shigley's Mechanical Engineering Design, 11th Edition: Richard Budynas & Keith Nisbett
  69. Sociology in Action: A Canadian Perspective, 2nd Edition: Diane Symbaluk & Tami Bereska
  70. Operations and Supply Chain Management: The Core, 5th Edition: F. Robert Jacobs & Richard Chase
  71. Essentials of Nursing Law and Ethics, 2nd Edition: Susan J. Westrick
  72. Kirk's Fire Investigation (Brady Fire), 8th Edition: David J. Icove & Gerald A. Haynes
  73. Understanding Operating Systems, 8th Edition: Ann McHoes & Ida M. Flynn
  74. Survey of Accounting, 1st Edition: Paul D. Kimmel & Jerry J. Weygandt
  75. Biological Anthropology: The Natural History of Humankind, 4th Edition: Craig Stanford & John S. Allen & Susan C. Antón
  76. DK Guide to Public Speaking, 3rd Edition: Lisa A. Ford-Brown & DK Dorling Kindersley
  77. Calculus: Early Transcendental Functions, 7th Edition: Ron Larson & Bruce H. Edwards
  78. Canadian Business and the Law, 7th Edition: Dorothy Duplessis & Shannon O'Byrne & Philip King & Lorrie Adams & Steve Enman
  79. An Introduction to Judaism, 2nd Edition: Nicholas De Lange
  80. A History of the Muslim World to 1750: The Making of a Civilization, 2nd Edition: Vernon O. Egger
  81. Bioprocess Engineering: Basic Concepts, 3rd Edition: Michael L. Shuler & Fikret Kargi & Matthew DeLisa
  82. Data Mining for Business Analytics: Concepts, Techniques, and Applications with JMP Pro, 1st Edition: Galit Shmueli & Peter C. Bruce & Mia L. Stephens & Nitin R. Patel
  83. Storied Health and Illness: Communicating Personal, Cultural, and Political Complexities, 1st Edition: Jill Yamasaki & Patricia Geist-Martin & Barbara F. Sharf
  84. Healthcare Strategic Planning, 4th Edition (ACHE Management): John Harris
  85. Applied Business Ethics: A Skills-Based Approach (South-Western Legal Studies in Business Academic), 1st Edition: Dean Bredeson
  86. Principles of Electric Circuits: Conventional Current Version, 10th Edition: Thomas L. Floyd & David M. Buchla
  87. Educational Psychology: Applications in Canadian Classrooms, 2nd Edition: Alan Edmunds & Gail Edmunds
  88. Essential Elements for Effectiveness for Miami Dade College, 7th Edition: Juan R. Abascal & Dominic Brucato & Laurel Brucato & Patricia Stephenson
  89. The Scholar-Practitioner’s Guide to Research Design: Laureate Publishing & Gary J. Burkholder & Kimberley A. Cox & Linda M. Crawford
  90. Good Cities, Better Lives: How Europe Discovered the Lost Art of Urbanism, 1st Edition: Peter Hall
  91. Adult Development and Aging: Biopsychosocial Perspectives, Canadian Edition: Susan Krauss Whitbourne & Stacey B. Whitbourne & Candace Konnert
  92. Organic Chemistry: Mechanistic Patterns: Ghis William Ogilvie & Nathan Ackroyd & Scott Browning
  93. The Environment in Anthropology : A Reader in Ecology, Culture, and Sustainable Living, 2nd Edition: Nora Haenn & Allison Harnish & Richard Wilk
  94. Sources of World Societies, Volume 1, 3rd Edition: Merry E. Wiesner-Hanks & Patricia Buckley Ebrey & Roger B. Beck
  95. Intermediate Algebra, 4th Edition: Michael III Sullivan & Katherine R. Struve
  96. Reference and Information Services: An Introduction, 4th Edition: Kay Ann Cassell & Uma Hiremath
  97. The Neuroscience of Human Relationships: Attachment and the Developing Social Brain, 2nd Edition: Louis Cozolino
  98. Qualitative Diagnosis of Human Movement: Improving Performance in Sport and Exercise, 3rd Edition: Duane V. Knudson
  99. Wireshark 101: Essential Skills for Network Analysis (Wireshark Solutions Series Book 1): Laura Chappell & Gerald Combs
  100. Behavioral Sciences STAT, 2nd Edition: Gary Heiman
  101. Guide to Contract Pricing: Cost and Price Analysis for Contractors, Subcontractors, and Government Agencies, 5th Edition: John E. Murphy
  102. Advanced Financial Accounting, 7th Canadian Edition: Thomas H. Beechy & V. Umashanker Trivedi & Kenneth E. MacAulay
  103. Contemporary Linguistic Analysis: An Introduction, 8th Edition: William O'Grady & John Archibald
  104. The Writer's Harbrace Handbook, 2016 MLA Update, 6th Edition: Cheryl Glenn & Loretta Gray
  105. The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography, 13th Edition: James M. Rubenstein
  106. Python Programming in Context, 3rd Edition: Bradley N. Miller & David L. Ranum & Julie Anderson
  107. Financial Institutions, Instruments and Markets, 9th Edition: Christopher Viney & Peter Phillips
  108. Essential Statistics for Public Managers and Policy Analysts, 4th Edition: Evan M. Berman & XiaoHu Wang
  109. NCLEX-RN Review Guide: Top Ten Questions for Quick Review, 1st Edition: Cynthia Chernecky
  110. Teachers and the Law, 9th Edition: David Schimmel & Leslie R. Stellman & Cynthia K. Conlon & Louis Fischer
  111. Communicating for Results: A Canadian Student's Guide, 4th Edition: Carolyn Meyer
  112. Federal Income Taxation, 5th Edition: Richard Schmalbeck & Lawrence Zelenak & Sarah B Lawsky
  113. Essentials of Cardiopulmonary Physical Therapy, 4th Edition: Ellen Hillegass
  114. Entertainment Law and Business (Aspen Casebook Series): William D. Henslee & Elizabeth Henslee
  115. Your Career: How To Make It Happen, 9th Edition: Lauri Harwood & Lisa M.D. Owens & Crystal Kadakia
  116. Community Disability Services: An Evidence-Based Approach to Practice: Ian Dempsey & Karen Nankervis
  117. Motivational Interviewing, Third Edition: Helping People Change, 3rd Edition: William R. Miller & Stephen Rollnick
  118. Basics of Communication Studies, 2nd Edition: Scott McLean
  119. The Certified Six Sigma Yellow Belt Handbook: Govindarajan Ramu
  120. Fundamentals of General, Organic and Biological Chemistry in SI Units, 8th Edition: John E. McMurry & David S. Ballantine & Carl A. Hoeger & Virginia E. Peterson
  121. Pediatric Psychopharmacology For Primary Care, 1st Edition: Mark A Riddle & Jane Meschan Foy & Rebecca A. Baum
  122. Project Management for Engineering, Business and Technology, 5th Edition: John M. Nicholas & Herman Steyn
  123. Delivering Business Intelligence with Microsoft SQL Server 2016, 4th Edition: Brian Larson
  124. Connecting Care for Patients: Interdisciplinary Care Transitions and Collaboration, 1st Edition: Barbara Katz
  125. The TCP/IP Guide: A Comprehensive, Illustrated Internet Protocols Reference, 1st Edition: Charles M. Kozierok
  126. Frequently Prescribed Medications: Drugs You Need to Know, 3rd Edition: Michael A. Mancano & Jason C. Gallagher
  127. The Handmaid's Tale, 1st Edition: Margaret Atwood
  128. 101 Solutions for School Counselors and Leaders in Challenging Times, 1st Edition: Stuart F. Chen-Hayes & Erin Chase McCarty Mason & Melissa S. Ockerman
  129. Ethics in Accounting: A Decision-Making Approach, 1st Edition: Gordon Klein
  130. Visualizing Human Biology, 5th Edition: Kathleen A. Ireland
  131. The Goldilocks Challenge: Right-Fit Evidence for the Social Sector, 1st Edition: Mary Kay Gugerty & Dean Karlan
  132. Advocacy Practice for Social Justice, 4th Edition: Richard Hoefer
  133. The Politics of Public Budgeting: Getting and Spending, Borrowing and Balancing, 9th Edition: Irene S. Rubin
  134. The Ingredients for Great Teaching, 1st Edition: Pedro De Bruyckere
  135. A Guide to the Human Resource Body of Knowledge, 1st Edition: Sandra M. Reed & Dave Ulrich
  136. Individual and Society: Sociological Social Psychology, 2nd Edition: Lizabeth A. Crawford & Katherine B. Novak
  137. Great Demo!: How To Create And Execute Stunning Software Demonstrations, 2nd Edition: Peter E. Cohan
  138. Healthcare Project Management, 2nd Edition: Kathy Schwalbe & Dan Furlong
  139. Goodheart's Photoguide to Common Pediatric and Adult Skin Disorders, 4th Edition: Herbert Goodheart & Mercedes Gonzalez
  140. Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction, 10th Edition: William D. Callister & David G. Rethwisch
  141. Personality Assessment, 2nd Edition: Robert P. Archer
  142. Philosophy: The Power Of Ideas, 10th Edition: Brooke Noel Moore & Kenneth Bruder
  143. Cognitive Neuroscience: The Biology of the Mind, 5th Edition: Michael Gazzaniga & Richard B. Ivry & George R. Mangun
  144. Deviance, Conformity, and Social Control in Canada, 5th Edition: Tami M. Bereska
  145. Experimental Design: Procedures for the Behavioral Sciences, 4th Edition: Roger E. Kirk
  146. Urban Economics, 9th Edition: Arthur O'Sullivan
  147. HBR Guide to Making Every Meeting Matter: Harvard Business Review
  148. Movie History: A Survey, 2nd Edition: Clara Pafort-Overduin
  149. Marriages and Families: Intimacy, Diversity, and Strengths, 9th Edition: David Olson & John DeFrain & Linda Skogrand
  150. Group Dynamics, 7th Edition: Donelson R. Forsyth
  151. Understanding Canadian Business, 10th Canadian Edition: William G Nickels & James McHugh & Susan McHugh & Rita Cossa & Julie Stevens
  152. Fitzpatrick's Color Atlas and Synopsis of Clinical Dermatology, 8th Edition: Klaus Wolff & Richard C. Johnson & Arturo Saavedra & Ellen K. Roh
  153. General and Oral Pathology for Dental Hygiene Practice, 1st Edition: Sandra Myers & Alice Curran
  154. Practical Apartment Management, 6th Edition: Edward N. Kelley
  155. Business Law in Canada, 12th Canadian Edition: Richard A. Yates & Teresa Bereznicki-Korol & Trevor Clarke & Dean A. Palmer
  156. Adolescence, 12th Edition: Laurence Steinberg
  157. Delivering Health Care in America: A Systems Approach, 7th Edition: Leiyu Shi & Douglas A. Singh
  158. DeathQuest: An Introduction to the Theory and Practice of Capital Punishment in the United States, 5th Edition: Robert M. Bohm
  159. Management, 12th Edition: Richard L. Daft
  160. Invertebrate Medicine, 2nd Edition: Gregory A. Lewbart
  161. Tested Advertising Methods (Prentice Hall Business Classics), 5th Edition: John Caples & Fred E. Hahn
  162. Pearson's Federal Taxation 2020 Corporations, Partnerships, Estates & Trusts, 33rd Edition: Timothy J. Rupert & Kenneth E. Anderson & David S. Hulse
  163. Planetary Sciences, 2nd Edition: Imke de Pater & Jack J. Lissauer
  164. World Class Contracting, 6th Edition: Gregory A. Garrett
  165. Social Determinants of Health: A Comparative Approach, 2nd Edition: Alan Davidson
  166. The Talent Management Handbook, 3rd Edition: Lance A. Berger & Dorothy Berger
  167. Doing Right: A Practical Guide to Ethics for Medical Trainees and Physicians, 4th Edition: Philip C. Hebert & Wayne Rosen
  168. Governing California in the Twenty-First Century, 6th Edition: J. Theodore Anagnoson & Gerald Bonetto & J. Vincent Buck
  169. Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy, 6th Edition: Robert W. Bauman
  170. Essentials of TAT and Other Storytelling Assessments, 2nd Edition: Hedwig Teglasi
  171. Film History: An Introduction, 4th Edition: Kristin Thompson & David Bordwell
  172. Statistics for Business & Economics, 14th Edition: David R. Anderson & Dennis J. Sweeney & Thomas A. Williams
  173. 21st Century Astronomy: The Solar System, 6th Edition: Laura Kay & Stacy Palen & George Blumenthal
  174. Chemical Dependency Counseling: A Practical Guide, 5th Edition: Robert R. Perkinson
  175. Essential Cell Biology, 5th Edition: Bruce Alberts & Karen Hopkin & Alexander D. Johnson
  176. Exploring Geology, 4th Edition: Stephen Reynolds & Julia Johnson & Paul Morin & Chuck Carter
  177. The Price Advantage, 2nd Edition: Walter L. Baker & Michael V. Marn & Craig C. Zawada
  178. Transport Processes at Fluidic Interfaces, 1st Edition: Dieter Bothe & Arnold Reusken
  179. Antitrust Law, Policy, and Procedure: Cases, Materials, Problems, 8th Edition: E. Thomas Sullivan & Herbert Hovenkamp & Howard A. Shelanski & Christopher R. Leslie
  180. 5 Steps to a 5: AP Chinese Language and Culture, 2nd Edition: JianMin Luo
  181. The Practice of Research in Social Work, 4th Edition: Rafael J. Engel & Russell K. Schutt
  182. Sociology: A Global Perspective, 9th Edition: Joan Ferrante
  183. Understanding and Treating Chronic Shame: A Relational/Neurobiological Approach, 1st Edition: Patricia A. DeYoung
  184. Classics of Moral and Political Theory, 5th Edition: Michael L. Morgan
  185. Financial & Managerial Accounting, 15th Edition: Carl Warren & Jefferson P. Jones & William B. Tayler
  186. Experimental Organic Chemistry: A Miniscale and Microscale Approach, 5th Edition: John C. Gilbert & Stephen F. Martin
  187. Vaccine Whistleblower: Exposing Autism Research Fraud at the CDC: 1st Edition: Kevin Barry & Robert F. Kennedy
  188. Wound Management: Principles and Practices, 3rd Edition: Betsy Myers
  189. Business Research Methods, 13th Edition: Pamela Schindler
  190. Goldman-Cecil Medicine, 26th Edition: Lee Goldman & Andrew I. Schafer
  191. Nursing Leadership & Management, 3rd Edition: Patricia Kelly
  192. Health Communication: A Media and Cultural Studies Approach, 2014 Edition: Belinda Lewis
  193. Sport, Violence and Society, 2nd Edition: Kevin Young
  194. Guide to Managerial Communication, 10th Edition: Mary Munter & Lynn Hamilton
  195. Emotion, 1st Edition: Annett Schirmer
  196. Clinical Analytics and Data Management for the DNP, 1st Edition: Martha L. Sylvia
  197. Principles of Corporate Finance, 11th Edition: Richard Brealey
  198. Introduction to Strategic Public Relations: Digital, Global, and Socially Responsible Communication, 1st Edition: Janis Teruggi Page & Lawrence J. Parnell
  199. Alternative Medicine: The Definitive Guide, 2nd Edition: Larry Trivieri & John W. Anderson & Burton Goldberg
  200. How Full Is Your Bucket?, Anniversary Edition: Tom Rath & Donald O. Clifton
  201. MATLAB: A Practical Introduction to Programming and Problem Solving, 5th Edition: Stormy Attaway
  202. Anatomical Landmark Palpation Video and Book, 1st Edition: Paula Maxwell
  203. Common Stocks and Uncommon Profits and Other Writings, 2nd Edition: Philip A. Fisher & Kenneth L. Fisher
  204. Elements of Physical Chemistry, 7th Edition: Peter Atkins & Julio de Paula
  205. Managing and Using Information Systems: A Strategic Approach, 7th Edition: Keri E. Pearlson & Carol S. Saunders & Dennis F. Galletta
  206. Mediation: Empowerment in Conflict Management, 2nd Edition: Kathy Domenici & Stephen W. Littlejohn
  207. Observing and Recording the Behavior of Young Children, 6th Edition: Dorothy H. Cohen & Virginia Stern & Nancy Balaban & Nancy Gropper
  208. Shortell and Kaluzny’s Healthcare Management: Organization Design and Behavior, 7th Edition: Lawton Burns & Elizabeth Bradley & Bryan Weiner
  209. Practical Business Math Procedures, 13th Edition: Jeffrey Slater & Sharon Wittry
  210. Biological Anthropology of the Human Skeleton, 3rd Edition: M. Anne Katzenberg & Anne L. Grauer
  211. Developmental Mathematics: Basic Mathematics and Algebra, 4th Edition: Margaret L. Lial & John Hornsby & Terry McGinnis & Stanley A. Salzman & Diana L. Hestwood
  212. Exercises for the Shoulder to Hand: Release Your Kinetic Chain: Brian James Abelson & Kamali Thara Abelson & Lavanya Balasubramaniyam
  213. Career Theories and Models at Work: Ideas for Practice: Nancy Arthur & Roberta Neault & Mary McMahon
  214. Culture, Health and Illness, (Hodder Arnold Publication), 5th Edition: Cecil G. Helman
  215. Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, 13th Edition: Barbara M. Newman & Philip R. Newman
  216. Cultural Anthropology in a Globalizing World, 4th Edition: Barbara Miller
  217. American Foreign Policy Since World War II, 21st Edition: Steven W. Hook & John W. Spanier
  218. World Politics: Trend and Transformation, 2016 - 2017, 16th Edition: Shannon L. Blanton & Charles W. Kegley
  219. Marketing Metaphoria: What Deep Metaphors Reveal About the Minds of Consumers: Gerald Zaltman & Lindsay H. Zaltman
  220. Building on the Strengths of Students with Special Needs: How to Move Beyond Disability Labels in the Classroom: Toby Karten
  221. American Public Administration: Public Service for the Twenty-First Century, 2nd Edition: Robert A. Cropf & John L. Wagner
  222. THINK Public Relations, 2nd Edition: Dennis L. Wilcox & Glen T. Cameron & Bryan H. Reber & Jae-Hwa Shin
  223. An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, 6th Edition: Bryan Kolb & Ian Q. Whishaw & G. Campbell Teskey
  224. Physiology, 6th Edition: Linda S. Costanzo
  225. Stats: Data and Models, 5th Edition: Richard D. De Veaux & Paul F. Velleman & David E. Bock
  226. Through Women's Eyes: An American History With Documents, 5th Edition: Ellen DuBois & Lynn Dumenil
  227. Intermediate Accounting: Volume 2, 3rd Edition: Kin Lo & George Fisher
  228. Disciplined Entrepreneurship: 24 Steps to a Successful Startup, 1st Edition: Bill Aulet
  229. People of the Earth: An Introduction to World Prehistory, 15th Edition: Brian M. Fagan & Nadia Durrani
  230. The Economics of Health Reconsidered, 4th Edition: Thomas Rice
  231. Psychology, 8th Edition: Saundra Hockenbury & Susan Nolan
  232. Exploring Biological Anthropology: The Essentials, 4th Edition: Craig Stanford & John S. Allen & Susan C. Antón
  233. Using MIS, 11th Edition: David M. Kroenke & Randall J. Boyle
  234. Musculoskeletal Pain: Basic Mechanisms & Implications, 1st Edition: Thomas Graven-Nielsen & Lars Arendt-Nielsen
  235. Classical Mythology in Context, 1st Edition: Lisa Maurizio
  236. The Nature and Properties of Soils, 15th Edition: Ray R. Weil & Nyle C. Brady
  237. Community-Based Corrections, 12th Edition: Leanne Fiftal Alarid
  238. Conflict Management for Managers: Resolving Workplace, Client, and Policy Disputes, 1st Edition: Susan S. Raines
  239. Strategic Compensation: A Human Resource Management Approach, 9th Edition: Joseph J. Martocchio
  240. Introduction to Probability and Statistics, 15th Edition: William Mendenhall & Robert J. Beaver & Barbara M. Beaver
  241. Demonstrating to Win!: The Indispensable Guide for Demonstrating Software: Robert Riefstahl
  242. Essential Organic Chemistry, 3rd Edition: Paula Yurkanis Bruice
  243. The American Promise, Value Edition, Volume 1: To 1877, 8th Edition: James L. Roark & Michael P. Johnson & Francois Furstenberg & Sarah Stage & Sarah E. Igo
  244. Labor Law: Cases, Materials, and Problems, 8th Edition: Michael C. Harper & Samuel Estreicher & Kati Griffith
  245. A Practical Guide to the Thematic Apperception Test: The TAT in Clinical Practice, 1st Edition: Edward Aronow & Kim Altman Weiss & Marvin Reznikoff
  246. Informatics and Nursing, 6th Edition: Jeanne Sewell
  247. Operating System Concepts, 10th Edition: Abraham Silberschatz & Greg Gagne & Peter B. Galvin
  248. The Career Fitness Program: Exercising Your Options, 11th Edition: Diane Sukiennik & Lisa Raufman
  249. Dutton's Orthopaedic: Examination, Evaluation and Intervention, 5th Edition: Mark Dutton
  250. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th Edition: American Psychological Association
  251. Sports Economics, 1st Edition: David Berri
  252. Health and Health Care Delivery in Canada, 2nd Edition: Valerie D. Thompson
  253. The Psychology Major's Handbook, 5th Edition: Tara L. Kuther
  254. Cardiovascular Physiology, 9th Edition: David E. Mohrman & Lois Jane Heller
  255. Fundamentals of Physical Geography, 2nd Edition: James Petersen & Dorothy Sack & Robert E. Gabler
  256. Advanced Health Assessment & Clinical Diagnosis in Primary Care, 6th Edition: Joyce E. Dains & Linda Ciofu Baumann & Pamela Scheibel
  257. An Introduction to the Ancient World, 3rd Edition: Lukas de Blois & R.J. van der Spek
  258. University Physics for the Physical and Life Sciences: Volume II, 1st Edition: Philip R. Kesten & David L. Tauck
  259. Cognitive Psychology, 7th Edition: Robert J. Sternberg & Karin Sternberg
  260. Contemporary Nursing: Issues, Trends, & Management, 8th Edition: Barbara Cherry & Susan R. Jacob
  261. How Psychology Works: The Facts Visually Explained, 1st Edition: Dorling Kindersley
  262. Cases in Health Care Marketing, 1st Edition: John L. Fortenberry
  263. Understanding Vineyard Soils, 2nd Edition: Robert E. White
  264. Foundations of Materials Science and Engineering, 6th Edition: William Smith
  265. Cultural Intimacy: Social Poetics and the Real Life of States, Societies, and Institutions, 3rd Edition: Michael Herzfeld
  266. Reading Sounds: Closed-Captioned Media and Popular Culture, 1st Edition: Sean Zdenek
  267. Behavioral Problems in Geography Revisited, 1st Edition: Kevin R Cox & Reginald Golledge
  268. The Economics of Recreation, Leisure and Tourism, 6th Edition: John Tribe
  269. HBR Guide to Persuasive Presentations: Nancy Duarte
  270. Give Me Liberty!: An American History, Volume 1, Seagull Sixth Edition: Eric Foner
  271. Yoder-Wise's Leading and Managing in Canadian Nursing, 2nd Edition: Janice Waddell & Nancy Walton
  272. Introduction to Econometrics, 4th Edition: James H. Stock & Mark W. Watson
  273. Statistical Physics, 2nd Edition: Franz Mandl
  274. Orthopedic Physical Assessment (Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation), 6th Edition: David J. Magee
  275. International Law for International Relations, 1st Edition: Basak Cali
  276. Omt Review: A Comprehensive Review in Osteopathic Medicine, 3rd Edition: Robert G. Savarese
  277. Health Research Methods: A Canadian Perspective: Kate Bassil
  278. IT Essentials Companion Guide v7, 1st Edition: Cisco Networking Academy
  279. Wright & Leahey's Nurses and Families: A Guide to Family Assessment and Intervention, 7th Edition: Zahra Shajani & Diana Snell
  280. The Power of Framing: Creating the Language of Leadership, 2nd Edition: Gail T. Fairhurst
  281. Agile Estimating and Planning (Robert C. Martin Series), 1st Edition: Mike Cohn
  282. Database Systems: The Complete Book, 2nd Edition: Hector Garcia-Molina & Jeffrey D. Ullman & Jennifer Widom
  283. Attacking Faulty Reasoning, 7th Edition: T. Edward Damer
  284. Biology: The Essentials, 3rd Edition: Mariëlle Hoefnagels
  285. Becoming a Professional Life Coach: Lessons from the Institute of Life Coach Training, 2nd Edition: Diane S. Menendez & Patrick Williams
  286. Essentials of Nursing Leadership & Management, 7th Edition: Sally A Weiss & Ruth M Tappen & Karen Grimley
  287. Rereading America: Cultural Contexts for Critical Thinking and Writing, 11th Edition: Gary Colombo & Robert Cullen & Bonnie Lisle
  288. The Business of Media Distribution: Monetizing Film, TV, and Video Content in an Online World, 3rd Edition: Jeffrey C. Ulin
  289. Macroeconomics: Canada in the Global Environment, 10th Edition: Robin Bade Michael Parkin
  290. Statistics in Action: Understanding a World of Data, 2nd Edition: Ann E. Watkins & Richard L. Scheaffer & George W. Cobb
  291. Clinical Handbook of Couple Therapy, 5th Edition: Alan S. Gurman & Jay L. Lebow & Douglas K. Snyder
  292. Occupational Safety and Health in the Emergency Services, 4th Edition: James S. Angle
  293. Racism without Racists: Color-Blind Racism and the Persistence of Racial Inequality in America, 5th Edition: Eduardo Bonilla-Silva
  294. Handbook for the Humanities, 1st Edition: Janetta Rebold Benton & Robert DiYanni
  295. A Comprehensive Guide to Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 2nd Edition: Michael L. Wehmeyer & Ivan Brown & Maire Percy & W.L. Alan Fung & Karrie A. Shogren
  296. Shelly Cashman Series Microsoft Office 365 & Office 2016: Introductory, 1st Edition: Misty E. Vermaat & Steven M. Freund & Corinne Hoisington & Eric Schmieder & Mary Z. Last
  297. Pediatric Primary Care: Practice Guidelines for Nurses, 4th Edition: Beth Richardson
  298. Abnormal Psychology, 8th Edition: Susan Nolen-Hoeksema
  299. Assessment is Essential, 1st Edition: Susan Green & Robert Johnson
  300. Economics, 19th Edition: Paul Samuelson & William Nordhaus
  301. CompTIA Security+ Practice Tests: Exam SY0-501, 1st Edition: S. Russell Christy & Chuck Easttom
  302. Theory and Design for Mechanical Measurements, 6th Edition: Richard S. Figliola & Donald E. Beasley
  303. Looking at Philosophy: The Unbearable Heaviness of Philosophy Made Lighter, 5th Edition: Donald Palmer
  304. Marketing, 4th Canadian Edition: Dhruv Grewal & Michael Levy & Shirley Lichti
  305. Social Psychology of Emotion, 1st Edition: Darren Ellis
  306. Rainbow's End: The Crash of 1929 (Pivotal Moments in American History), 1st Edition: Maury Klein
  307. Your Office: Microsoft Access 2016 Comprehensive, 1st Edition: Amy S. Kinser & Brant Moriarity & Eric Kinser & Diane Kosharek
  308. Zero Trust Networks: Building Secure Systems in Untrusted Networks, 1st Edition: Evan Gilman & Doug Barth
  309. Investment Valuation: Tools and Techniques for Determining the Value of Any Asset, 3rd Edition: Aswath Damodaran
  310. Essentials of Accounting, 11th Edition: Leslie K. Breitner & Robert N. Anthony
  311. Essentials of Health Information Management: Principles and Practices, 2nd Edition: Michelle Green & Mary Jo Bowie
  312. Financial Accounting, 10th Edition: Robert Libby & Patricia Libby & Frank Hodge
  313. Clinical Psychology: Science, Practice, and Diversity, 5th Edition: Andrew M. Pomerantz
  314. An Introduction to American Law, 3rd Edition: Daniel Rosen & Bruce Aronson & David G. Litt
  315. The Intelligent Investor, Revised Edition: Benjamin Graham & Jason Zweig & Warren E. Buffett
  316. Introduction to Neuropsychopharmacology, 1st Edition: Leslie Iversen & Susan Iversen & Floyd E. Bloom & Robert H. Roth
  317. Study Guide for Pharmacology and the Nursing Process, 9th Edition: Linda Lane Lilley & Julie S. Snyder & Shelly Rainforth Collins
  318. Corporate Computer Security, 4th Edition: Randy J. Boyle & Raymond R. Panko
  319. Linear Algebra: A Modern Introduction, 4th Edition: David Poole
  320. The One-Hour Activist: The 15 Most Powerful Actions You Can Take to Fight for the Issues and Candidates You Care About, 1st Edition: Christopher Kush
  321. Likeable Social Media, Revised and Expanded, 2nd Edition: Dave Kerpen
  322. Essential MATLAB for Engineers and Scientists, 7th Edition: Brian Hahn & Daniel Valentine
  323. History and Systems of Psychology, 7th Edition: James F. Brennan & Keith A. Houde
  324. Pain-Related Fear:Exposure-Based Treatment of Chronic Pain: Exposure-Based Treatment, 1st Edition: Johan W. Vlaeyen & Stephen J. Morley & Steven J. Linton & Katja Boersma & Jeroen de Jong
  325. Introductory Medical-Surgical Nursing, 12th Edition: Barbara Kuhn Timby & Nancy E. Smith
  326. Interviewing in Action in a Multicultural World, 5th Edition: Bianca Cody Murphy & Carolyn Dillon
  327. Business Law: Text & Cases, An Accelerated Course: 14th Edition: Roger LeRoy Miller
  328. The Ethics of Coaching Sports: Moral, Social and Legal Issues, 1st Edition: Robert Simon
  329. University Physics with Modern Physics, 15th Edition: Hugh D. Young & Roger A. Freedman
  330. The Heart of Yoga: Developing a Personal Practice, 2nd Edition: T. K. V. Desikachar
  331. Vertebrate Life, 10th Edition: F. Harvey Pough & Christine M. Janis
  332. Renewable Energy Resources, 3rd Edition: John Twidell & Tony Weir
  333. Neuroscience: Fundamentals for Rehabilitation, 5th Edition: Laurie Lundy-Ekman
  334. Advocacy in the Human Services, 1st Edition: Mark Ezell
  335. Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy: A Multicultural Perspective, 7th Edition: Allen E. Ivey & Michael J. D′Andrea & Mary Bradford Ivey
  336. Principles of Corporate Finance, 10th Edition: Brealey & Myers & Allen
  337. Introduction to Law for Paralegals: A Critical Thinking Approach, 7th Edition: Katherine A. Currier & Thomas E. Eimermann
  338. Leading in a Culture of Change Personal Action Guide and Workbook: Michael Fullan
  339. The Fast Forward MBA in Project Management, 4th Edition: Eric Verzuh
  340. Health Informatics: An Interprofessional Approach, 2nd Edition: Ramona Nelson & Nancy Staggers
  341. Lifespan Development in Context: A Topical Approach, 1st Edition: Tara L. Kuther
  342. Sport Mechanics for Coaches, 3rd Edition: Brendan Burkett
  343. The Elements of Journalism, Revised and Updated 3rd Edition: What Newspeople Should Know and the Public Should Expect: Bill Kovach & Tom Rosenstiel
  344. Hands-On Design Patterns with Java, 1st Edition: Edward Lavieri
  345. Laboratory Manual for Introductory Geology, 4th Edition: Allan Ludman & Stephen Marshak
  346. Absolute, Ultimate Guide to Principles of Biochemistry Study Guide and Solutions Manual, 7th Edition: David L. Nelson & Michael M. Cox
  347. Control Systems Engineering, 8th Edition: Norman S. Nise
  348. Crafting the InfoSec Playbook: Security Monitoring and Incident Response Master Plan, 1st Edition: Jeff Bollinger & Brandon Enright & Matthew Valites
  349. First Aid for the USMLE Step 2 CS, 6th Edition: Tao Le & Vikas Bhushan
  350. Android Programming Concepts, Pap/Psc Edition: Trish Cornez & Richard Cornez
  351. Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual, 12th Edition: James G. Cappuccino & Chad T. Welsh
submitted by TailExpert to CollegeTextbook [link] [comments]

This is what we get for "Regulation"

The CEO of Bakkt for regulated bitcoin deriviatves that agree with the CFTC's *regulations* IS KELLY LOEFLER who inside traded in January the senator briefing for Corona Virus.
This is why Know your customer laws and the CFTC are corrupt. You are so much better off with uncensorable money and platforms.
We should force the Federal government to comply with our money, open source money. No tracking, no printing, they deal with an anonymous swiss bank account in peoples pocket, they take it and they fucking deal with it like the elected civil servants they are suppose to be.
submitted by samdane7777 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

The Network of Networks, Scalable Interoperability to Unleash the True Potential of Blockchain

The Network of Networks, Scalable Interoperability to Unleash the True Potential of Blockchain
There is not going to be one blockchain to rule them all, each have their own advantages and disadvantages. Interoperability is key to unlocking the true potential of blockchain, where it will have a profound effect across all industries, creating a secure, trusted and hyper-connected world.
The rise of The Networks of Networks, interconnecting all DLT Networks, existing off-chain networks and even the Internet itself. Where true, scalable interoperability can be achieved without requiring connected chains to fork their code and imposing limitations, without the overhead, bottleneck and single point of failure of adding another blockchain in the middle. Where it will be quick, easy and free to participate.
It’s time to stop the childish tribalism that’s plagued this space for so long and realise the bigger picture. Tribes fighting amongst themselves over a tiny insignificant island where there is a whole world out there to conquer if they work together. A rising tide lifts all boats and with the birth of The Network of Networks all connected projects can benefit from the efforts of each other, to usher in Mass adoption of Blockchain.
https://preview.redd.it/wlwj7pmmyoi41.png?width=683&format=png&auto=webp&s=34918b25c8ef6303fc5579666352e8c8c52c4835
In this article I will discuss the foundations that are being laid in preparation for the release of Overledger Network, The Network of Networks to make all of this possible and to unleash the true potential of blockchain with a secure, hyper-connected decentralised ecosystem. Table of Contents:
  1. Overledger SDK Update
  2. Standards
  3. Security
  4. Regulation
  5. Overledger Network
  6. The Five Ingredients of Interoperability
  7. Connecting Blockchain and Non-DLT Applications / Networks to Overledger
  8. Connecting the Internet directly to blockchain
  9. Join your favourite Blockchain project to the Overledger Network Ecosystem

Overledger SDK Update

Quant have just released their Overledger SDK update which has enabled standardisation of objects to abstract and simplify how to interact with different types of blockchains (UXTO and Account-based) in a common model. As well as the ability to directly deploy, invoke and query smart contracts directly through Overledger. I strongly recommend reading the teams Overledger SDK Update which explains it in more detail and includes example use cases of how Overledger is being used and the benefits it brings. Dr Luke Riley also did a fantastic job providing an in-depth demo of the Overledger SDK Update via Video as well.
https://youtu.be/PbpaZpe4mTQ

“This update sets the foundations to build the ecosystem for Overleger Network, allowing stakeholders other than Quant to write any type (DLT and non-DLT) Overledger connectors and sets up the ecosystem with multiple entry points for Overledger Gateways. These updates open up the integration capabilities of Overledger to 3rd parties and create the foundations for the Overledger Network”

Standards

“Trusted standards mean that industry doesn’t need to reinvent the wheel, that innovations will be compatible and work with existing technology, and that products and services will be trusted too. Governments use standards as trusted solutions to complement regulation, and they give peace of mind to consumers who know they are not putting themselves or their families at risk.” — Acting ISO Secretary-General Kevin McKinley
The foundations need to align with internationally recognised standards as they play a crucial role in ensuring interoperability with new and existing technology and validates a product meets the best practices / regulation required to ensure Enterprises remains in compliance. CEO of Quant, Gilbert Verdian, founded the ISO TC 307 standard covering blockchain as a whole, which 56 countries are working towards today.
Countries involved with ISO TC 307 — https://www.iso.org/committee/6266604.html?view=participation
Gilbert Verdian is the chairman for the ISO TC 307 working group for interoperability of blockchain and distributed ledger technology systems as well as being chairman for Blockchain and Distributed Ledger Technology for BSI (British Standards Institution) which represent the UK and includes companies such as Quant, IBM, Microsoft, HSBC, BAE Systems, Huawei as well as a number of UK Government bodies such as BEIS — Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy, Defence Science and Technology and the National Cyber Security Centre.
The standardisation updates to the Overledger SDK aligns with the work in ISO TC 307 and academic work from Dr Paolo Tasca and Dr Claudio Tessone to provide users with a clear distributed ledger data standard. This will enable everyone to easily create connectors in a standard way, facilitating interoperability with all of the connected blockchains / non-DLT networks that are already connected to Overledger through Overledger Gateways.

Security

Cybersecurity is in Quant’s DNA. The team have a rich heritage of working for Governments, banks and industry for over 20 years protecting organisations and people from security threats. Before Quant, Gilbert Verdian was the Chief Information Security Officer for Vocalink (Mastercard) where he was in charge of security for the entire payments infrastructure in the UK (£6 Trillion per year).
Gilbert has led a team determined to take security to another level, protecting a critical part of the UK’s infrastructure, protecting UK citizens and businesses from fraud and risk and, by extension, allowing them to live as they want to. Under Gilbert’s guidance, Vocalink security is not merely best-in-class, but setting a new standard. — https://connect.vocalink.com/2017/july/a-winning-streak/
In addition to Quant being selected as a Guarantor for Pay.UK, Gilbert has also been appointed to the Cybersecurity Advisory Board (Pay.UK is the UK’s leading retail payments authority and runs the UK’s retail payments operations, which includes Bacs, Faster Payments and Cheques.)
The pillars of security are Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability. As such, they have used their experience in running payment and financial infrastructure and critical national infrastructure for nations and embedded these principles into every aspect of Overledger.

Regulation

Regulation is playing an ever increasing role for blockchain. Standards and Security naturally complement and help define regulation. The verticals Quant are involved in with regards to regulation span the globe. Gilbert helped shape the conversation about consumer data protection rights during his time as CISO of NSW Health, and is continuing to serve as a cornerstone for policy within the adoption of blockchain in public infrastructure. Quant serves as a founding member of INATBA (The International Association of Trusted Blockchain Applications), which is the formal governing body of the European Blockchain Partnership, all of which is overseen in Brussels by the EU. More locally, Gilbert and team are in consistent contact with the House of Lords within the UK, and advises the FCA in matters regarding cryptoassets.
https://preview.redd.it/9eynt6jpyoi41.png?width=735&format=png&auto=webp&s=c6073e7717ece1c8b878e02e34c9e359e3282fd7
As recently seen in the SDK update, Overledger can serve as a key component of automatic compliance of governance bodies’ financial regulation, shown here by an Overledger instance reporting to the BoE’s Prudential Regulation Authority. Project BARAC, stewarded by University College London, is a project examining the impact Automatic Regulation as administered by Blockchain can have on the Federal Government. Most notably, the FCA and R3, the developers of Corda, are involved here. Gilbert’s recent engagements with the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston also seem to revolve around this very topic, with the Boston Fed pilot-testing a Supervisor Node for automatic regulatory compliance. While at P2PFISY 2019, it was noted by Gilbert that Raphael Auer’s “Regulation Automata” aligns very well with the vision of Overledger, with Paolo Tasca, former CSO of Quant, more recently co-hosting a recent blockchain panel with him. Raphael’s ideas will most likely be taken into consideration by the BIS, as they recently announced a trial of a 6 central banks collaboration centered around exploring CBDC, and are in the early stages of installing Innovation Hubs in Hong Kong, Switzerland, and Singapore.
Gilbert Verdian with Guy Dietrich (Managing Director at Rockefeller Capital who is also on the Board at Quant) attending a meeting with the Financial Conduct Authority

Overledger Network

https://preview.redd.it/1wgbdybryoi41.png?width=1684&format=png&auto=webp&s=baf87b413947a19e745fcd859c0706a1cf8570b2
The Overledger Network is a network of networks, which allows enterprise and communities stakeholders to access and participate in a growing hyper-connected decentralised ecosystem. Enterprises, banks, central banks, trading venues, etc will be able to host their own secure dedicated gateways, enabling secure connectivity to permissioned networks, permissionless networks, ecosystems, consortia and other distributed technologies. Community members will also be able to run an Overledger gateway to further enhance the scalability, decentralisation and optimise network latency, providing enterprises, developers and users choice to use the closest gateway when accessing permissionless blockchains. The Overledger gateways will create a scalable p2p network that shares the transaction and volume between participants and chooses the closest or largest node to transact with.
As per the example use case in the recent update a Bank can run an Overledger Gateway to provide access to the various consortiums hosted on a variety of blockchains including Corda, Hyperledger Fabric and JP Morgan’s Quorum as well as access to the legacy / non-DLT platforms. Should they want to utilise a public blockchain as well in a hybrid scenario then they also have the option of using a Overledger Gateway hosted by a community member.
https://preview.redd.it/veb0q18syoi41.png?width=1096&format=png&auto=webp&s=c8ea3bedd09e16e548c6da938d50f3b245e18ac6

https://preview.redd.it/r9j1v04tyoi41.png?width=1252&format=png&auto=webp&s=ae9cc70a01f6360550d7f1f00e046d9b801b89a1
The Overledger Gateways contain several layers which we will explore some of their features below:

Overledger Operating System

https://preview.redd.it/9v7rxtmvyoi41.png?width=1197&format=png&auto=webp&s=01c9d6e0a73f595283e3cebeb45b5a6bf484d94d
Overledger allows connection to any blockchain / DAG as well as easily integrating with existing non-DLT environments. It does this without adding the overhead of yet another blockchain / consensus in the middle, ensuring that it’s scalable and doesn’t contain a single point of failure. Nor does it require the connected blockchains to fork their code to integrate and place restrictions on what can be implemented going forward. All of this is done in a secure, trustless manner where transactions are signed and encrypted client side so the contents can’t be viewed / modified as they pass through Overledger. It currently connects all of the leading permissioned and permissionless blockchains used by enterprises today. This article explains the differences between other interoperability solutions and the benefits of Quant’s approach

The Five Ingredients of Interoperability:

Recently there was an interoperability webinar with Fintech connect with speakers such as R3’s CTO Richard Gendal Brown, along with representatives from the Bank of England, Deutsche Boerse, Nasdaq, ArchaxEx and SwissRe. Richard Gendal Brown from R3 wrote about the Five key Ingredients of Interoperability:
https://preview.redd.it/18e9wwq7zoi41.png?width=2356&format=png&auto=webp&s=537b2e70139bb0e70fcd615c497541fc89bba97f
  1. INTEGRATE with existing business systems — Businesses aren’t going to replace their existing applications for new blockchain ones, they need to integrate with their existing systems.
  2. INITIATE Payments on existing rails or blockchain rails — Needs to be able to make a payment / settlement using a wide variety of existing payment rails (off chain) as well as blockchain rails, ensuring delivery vs payment can be achieved with certainty that they have happened.
  3. INTERCHAIN applications and smart contracts that can be deployed / executed across protocols — Enabling a solution built on Corda such as Marco Polo to easily connect to a solution on another platform such as Vakt on Ethereum or CargoSmart on Hyperledger Fabric etc
  4. INTRACHAIN applications that benefit from value add of same underlying protocol — What happens when networks such as Marco Polo and Contour both running on Corda want to interoperate and the additional value and benefit that can be achieved.
  5. INTERCHANGE applications to switch platforms — What happens if you want to interchange one platform for another. Can you achieve that holy grail of interoperability by being able to be completely agnostic to the underlying platform?
Overledger meets all of these key ingredients in performing interoperability. Overledger enables existing business systems to benefit from blockchain connectivity by adding as little as 3 lines of code to their existing applications. No need to completely rewrite / replace their existing systems and all done in the most common programming languages such as Java and JavaScript.
https://preview.redd.it/7jqjt9v8zoi41.png?width=1127&format=png&auto=webp&s=6f40c1ae463d76c6c6b46a9e716e544e06ef3cd4
At QuantX in December they announced Overledger Interchange which enables settlement on a variety of existing non-dlt payment rails such as Faster Payments, BACS, CHAPS, SEPA, SWIFT as well as on DLT payment rails such as with Central Bank Digital Currencies, Stablecoins and XRP. It also facilitates Cross Chain Atomic Swaps using Hash Time Locked Contracts ensuring Delivery vs Payment is achieved. Interchange is at the centre of the discussions Quant has had with traditional exchanges in capital markets and central banks and is a technology financial services have been missing and was built it address client needs.
Overledger enables interoperability within the same ecosystem such as Corda DAPP to another Corda DAPP etc as well as interoperability between any of the connected permissionless and permissioned blockchains.
Quants blockchain agnostic Operating System enables users to benefit from using the best features from different chains in combination and migrate between them, preventing Vendor or Tech Lock in without having to completely rewrite existing applications, achieving the holy grail of interoperability. It enables developers to quickly test a variety of connected blockchains in a sandbox environment to see which is best suited for their requirements, starting with just 3 lines of code.

Transactions Services Layer

https://preview.redd.it/xfthwuz9zoi41.png?width=771&format=png&auto=webp&s=8721b0ae8cff0d8aa11a484ac0ac842e700def0a
The Transaction Services layer handles more complex features of Overledger. Allowing for applications to request services such as cross-chain atomic swaps, treaty contracts (Multi Chain Smart Contracts as well as enabling smart contract functionality even on blockchains that don’t support smart contracts natively such as Bitcoin) and transaction brokering (using heuristic analysis to determine which method is the fastest / cheapest out of the various payment rails)

Financial Services Layer

https://preview.redd.it/4zgt0umazoi41.png?width=740&format=png&auto=webp&s=49a840532d70740a77c00901aafd047311b84229
Financial services features can be called upon by participants and applications to use crosschain and cross-platform. Financial Services specific use cases can use the features in Overledger to operate across networks. This layer provides enhanced privacy and security to regulated entities and institutions who require additional controls to maintain compliance to regulation and security policy. The features of Zero-knowledge Proof and privacy can be mandated for all transactions.

Channels Layer

https://preview.redd.it/ef5z0jbbzoi41.png?width=752&format=png&auto=webp&s=3fd398e0b9917e338fb6c3e0afb477d82dfeb1c8
Channels provide interoperability of services related to digital assets, payments and tokenisation. The Overledger Network allows for participants to transfer interoperate enterprise and institutional issued tokens and assets. Connect to many existing payment rails such as SWIFT, SEPA, Faster Payments etc.
https://preview.redd.it/0u93b51czoi41.png?width=1441&format=png&auto=webp&s=a7ecbf440684a926b66db7273fdba9acfda826d7

Connecting Blockchain and Non-DLT Applications / Networks to Overledger

The connectors to Overledger which grant access to Overledger Network will be open source and soon be made available, allowing for anyone to create a connector and benefit from being part of the ecosystem. Currently the permissionless blockchain space is mostly speculation with little adoption, mainly due to issues that need to be resolved such as scalability, privacy and regulation with permissionless blockchains, however there are some extremely large Enterprises, Banks, Governments, even Central Banks getting heavily involved and going into production albeit mostly in the permissioned blockchain space where such issues are not a problem. Just as each Blockchain has its advantages and disadvantages, parts of Enterprise applications are better suited to Permissioned blockchains (such as more sensitive parts) and permissionless blockchains suited for a higher degree of immutability, thus a Hybrid model requiring interoperability between permissioned, permissionless as well as existing non-DLT applications is required arguably for many years ahead. Just as with cloud computing where everything didn’t suddenly just move up into the cloud, well over a decade later since the birth of the likes of Amazon AWS, hybrid is still very prevalent today with only recently the likes of central banks, banks, governments discussing moving more sensitive workloads to public clouds such as Amazon AWS, Microsoft Azure, Oracle Cloud etc.

SIA, Central Banks, Banks, Trading Venues

Quant Network partnered with SIA, a game changer for mass blockchain adoption by Financial Institutions. SIA is the leading financial network provider in Europe that connects over 570 Banks, Central Banks, Trading Venues (stock exchanges etc) to their infrastructure. They provide a dedicated private network / infrastructure for financial institutions. Every European financial institution will either connect via SIA, in partnership with Colt or via SWIFT (and in many cases they will have connectivity with both) in order to access the Eurosystem Single Market Infrastructure Gateway, granting access to all RTGS, Securities and Instant Payment transactions for Europe.
SIA have integrated Overledger into their private infrastructure covering Europe consisting of 570 supernodes called SIAChain which enables each bank, central Bank, trading venue etc to utilise Overledger for interoperability. Some of the largest deployments of blockchain are happening on SIAChain such as the Spunta project where the entire Italian Banking Sector will be using blockchain and due to go live next month. As well as the “Fideiussioni Digitali” initiative (Digital Sureties) to digitize the management of sureties using blockchain technology with the Central Bank of Italy involved.
Central Bank Digital Currencies are going to play a hugely significant role in the future and there is one central Bank currently testing Overledger and Quant are in discussions with 4 others.
Connecting your blockchain / legacy network to Overledger enables the possibility that it could be used by any of these connected Banks, Central Banks, Trading venues etc in their private network (obviously due to the amount of regulation and critical financial infrastructure the options are going to be limited on what they want to connect).
https://preview.redd.it/ob1vzu7dzoi41.png?width=1336&format=png&auto=webp&s=af9fc79d4749005e60666e3f21cee1a10e9b2275

Oracle

Quant are a Fintech Partner with Oracle, the 2nd largest software company in the world and Oracle are taking Quant’s tech to their clients directly. They have 480,000 clients globally and towards the end of last year Oracle invited Quant to attend Sibos (SWIFT) where they met existing financial services and banking clients and introduced to new ones. By connecting to Overledger this also enables your solution to potentially be used by those 480,000 of Oracle’s global clients.
https://preview.redd.it/rgo9n1ydzoi41.png?width=1220&format=png&auto=webp&s=2521b5968cfb2d8533da0963d3f838b9f518faa5

SIMBA Chain

SIMBA Chain is a cloud-based, smart-contract-as-a-service (SCaaS) platform, enabling users across a variety of skill sets to implement dapps (decentralized applications). The easy-to-use platform is tailored for users, developers, government, and enterprises to quickly deploy blockchain dapps for their enterprise. SIMBA Chain are developing on Quant’s Overledger Blockchain OS to allow them to deploy DAPPs across multiple connected blockchains.
SIMBA Chain have recently been awared a $9.5 million contract with the US Navy, they are also working with the US Air Force. They have a thriving ecosystem with over 1100 Organizations and 650+ Applications developed. Partners include Microsoft, Government Blockchain Association, Air Force Research Laboratory, Caterpillar, SAP and EY. Recently they also integrated Unity 3D plugin for Gaming to enable owning, storing, and managing all personal gaming assets across a variety of blockchains.
These are just a few of the companies that Quant have partnered with directly, but the ecosystem for Overledger Network is the Network of Networks. Every connected blockchain (Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ripple (XRPL), EOS, Stellar, IOTA, DAG, R3’s Corda, Hyperledger Fabric, JP Morgan’s Quorum and other Permissioned Variants of Ethereum) and their associated partners / applications built on them have the ability to connect and interoperate with the other blockchains connected as well as non-DLT networks such as existing payment rails like SWIFT, Faster Payments, SEPA etc. This Network of Network’s effects will grow exponentially as more and more join the ecosystem.
https://preview.redd.it/fd1m5uvezoi41.png?width=590&format=png&auto=webp&s=99c5b1893d851ba1effe7b5e73480c27f3f7973e

Connecting the Internet directly to blockchain

Quant Network are also developing the ability to allow developers to build MAPPs that integrate directly with the internet as well as blockchain data. They will enable this via creating a new IP address for blockchains which they are calling Quant IP which will enable traffic to be routed from an IP connection from the Internet through Overledger to the connected blockchains.
Another Quant product called Seeq is a distributed search engine that is able to search and retrieve data from multiple blockchains and display them via html directly from the blockchain. More details will be released about Seeq later this year.
Connecting the Internet directly to blockchain will allow websites to be natively created and served directly from blockchains, without the need to have, run and maintain web servers, web services, SSL certificates etc and all running in a completely trusted, extremely resilient / tamperproof environment. The implications of this are enormous and more details will be released by the team later on this exciting prospect. By connecting your blockchain to Overledger you will also be able to benefit from this.

Join your favourite Blockchain project to the Overledger Network Ecosystem

Instead of the current mentality of having the main focus for many projects of listing on exchanges for vast sums of money, why not spend a little time (connectors can be created in as little as a week of development and don’t necessarily even need to be created by the team themselves) and make your blockchain / non-DLT application available to be used by all existing enterprises / members. Not only that but if you also run an Overledger Gateway connecting your blockchain node you also benefit from the transaction fees of the traffic going to it. The connectors are open source and completely free to connect and now with the standardisation of Objects in the recent SDK update the foundations are in place for the launch of Overledger Network with an ETA of Q2 2020. If you would like your favourite blockchain project to interoperate and be part of the ecosystem to further adoption then make the relevant people aware and keep an eye out for further details released in the future.

https://medium.com/@CryptoSeq/the-network-of-networks-scalable-interoperability-to-unleash-the-true-potential-of-blockchain-c54e7d373d2d

Thanks to community member Ghost of St. Miklos for contributing the section about regulation as well as Sonic for proofreading.
You can find more about Overledger Network as well as the token utility — here and community member David W. wrote an excellent article “A deeper look into the Quant Network Utility Token (QNT) valuation dynamics and fundamentals”
What is a blockchain operating system and what are the benefits? Introducing Overledger from Quant Network.
Wall Street 2.0: How Blockchain will revolutionise Wall Street and a closer look at Quant Network’s Partnership with AX Trading
Large Enterprise Adoption of Blockchain is happening, enabled by Quant Network’s Overledger
As well as an 8 Part Series taking an indepth look at Overledger starting with Part 1
submitted by xSeq22x to QuantNetwork [link] [comments]

Should The Federal Goverment Help Fight Obesity Federal Reserve Chair Janet Yellen: Personally Concerned About US Debt  CNBC Regulation and Bitcoin (Jerry Brito) Government agents charged with Bitcoin theft Should the Federal Government Regulate E-Cigarette Usage?

Bitcoin Government Regulations Around the World. FACEBOOK The United States Federal Government has not yet claimed the right to regulate cryptocurrencies exclusively, leaving individual states Various government agencies are discussing the possibility of regulating Bitcoin, but some experts say that Bitcoin's decentralized nature makes it difficult if not impossible to regulate. by Bob in conclusion... The US Federal Government should not regulate Bitcoin exchange centers. Enforcement is not feasible Obligation lies with the user and their freedom users innocent until proven guilty Exchange centers should instead follow FinCen guidlines to register as Money The Federal Reserve does not have a policy towards the regulation of Bitcoin, although it has said that it may be a matter that they will have to consider at some point in the future, The Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN), an agency within the US Treasury Department, published guidelines about cryptocurrencies as early as 2013 These bad things happen with governmental currencies too, but in a much, much lesser degree because those currencies are subject to government regulation and oversight.

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Should The Federal Goverment Help Fight Obesity

The only regulation that should apply on a business is the market. Once a business starts selling their product for too much, they will go bankrupt. ... Government Regulation: Crash Course ... Federal agencies will attempt to regulate Bitcoin, according to the Mercatus Center's Jerry Brito. Given that regulation simply cannot control the new currency, the question is whether that ... On Thursday, April 14, experts on both sides of the reclassifying marijuana issue presented their case and engaged in a lively debate on the potential pros and cons and costs and benefits of the ... Kersh, Associate Professor of Public Service, discusses whether or not the federal government should help fight obesity. Federal Agents responsible for investigating Silk Road are charged with stealing bitcoins from the illegal site. "48 Hours" correspondent Michele Sigona repo...

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